SPAMfighter information about

Bosnia and Herzegovina

The data on this page is obtained from The World Factbook.
 Communications information 
SPAMfighters: 1,691
Internet users: 806,400 (2005)
Internet hosts: 31,490 (2006)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 3 (2000)
Internet country code: .ba
Telephones - main lines in use: 968,900 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 1.594 million (2005)
Telephone system: general assessment: telephone and telegraph network needs modernization and expansion; many urban areas are below average as contrasted with services in other former Yugoslav republics

domestic: NA

international: country code - 387; no satellite earth stations
Radio broadcast stations: AM 8, FM 16, shortwave 1 (1998)
Radios: 940,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 33 (plus 277 repeaters) (September 1995)
Televisions: NA
 Geographical information 
Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia
Geographic coordinates: 44 00 N, 18 00 E
Map references: Europe
Area: total: 51,129 sq km

land: 51,129 sq km

water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative: slightly smaller than West Virginia
Land boundaries: total: 1,459 km

border countries: Croatia 932 km, Montenegro 225 km, Serbia 302 km
Coastline: 20 km
Maritime claims: no data available
Climate: hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along coast
Terrain: mountains and valleys
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m

highest point: Maglic 2,386 m
Natural resources: coal, iron ore, bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, cobalt, manganese, nickel, clay, gypsum, salt, sand, forests, hydropower
Land use: arable land: 19.61%

permanent crops: 1.89%

other: 78.5% (2005)
Irrigated land: 30 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes
Environment - current issues: air pollution from metallurgical plants; sites for disposing of urban waste are limited; water shortages and destruction of infrastructure because of the 1992-95 civil strife; deforestation
Environment - international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note: within Bosnia and Herzegovina´s recognized borders, the country is divided into a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation (about 51% of the territory) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska or RS (about 49% of the territory); the region called Herzegovina is contiguous to Croatia and Serbia and Montenegro (Montenegro), and traditionally has been settled by an ethnic Croat majority in the west and an ethnic Serb majority in the east
 People information 
Population: 4,498,976 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 15.5% (male 359,739/female 336,978)

15-64 years: 70.1% (male 1,590,923/female 1,564,665)

65 years and over: 14.4% (male 265,637/female 381,034) (2006 est.)
Median age: total: 38.4 years

male: 37.2 years

female: 39.5 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.35% (2006 est.)
Birth rate: 8.77 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate: 8.27 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate: 13.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 9.82 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 11.26 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 8.28 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 78 years

male: 74.39 years

female: 81.88 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.22 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 900 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 100 (2001 est.)
Nationality: noun: Bosnian(s), Herzegovinian(s)

adjective: Bosnian, Herzegovinian
Ethnic groups: Bosniak 48%, Serb 37.1%, Croat 14.3%, other 0.6% (2000)

note: Bosniak has replaced Muslim as an ethnic term in part to avoid confusion with the religious term Muslim - an adherent of Islam
Religions: Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Roman Catholic 15%, other 14%
Languages: Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 94.6%

male: 98.4%

female: 91.1% (2000 est.)
 Governmental information 
Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Bosnia and Herzegovina

local long form: none

local short form: Bosna i Hercegovina

former: People´s Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Government type: emerging federal democratic republic
Capital: name: Sarajevo

geographic coordinates: 43 52 N, 18 25 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions: 2 first-order administrative divisions and 1 internationally supervised district* - Brcko district (Brcko Distrikt)*, the Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska; note - Brcko district is in northeastern Bosnia and is an administrative unit under the sovereignty of Bosnia and Herzegovina; the district remains under international supervision
Independence: 1 March 1992 (from Yugoslavia; referendum for independence was completed 1 March 1992; independence was declared 3 March 1992)
National holiday: National Day, 25 November (1943)
Constitution: the Dayton Agreement, signed 14 December 1995, included a new constitution now in force; note - each of the entities also has its own constitution
Legal system: based on civil law system
Suffrage: 18 years of age, universal
Executive branch: chief of state: Chairman of the Presidency Nebojsa RADMANOVIC (chairman since 6 November 2006; presidency member since 1 October 2006 - Serb); other members of the three-member presidency rotating (every eight months): Zeljko KOMSIC (since 1 October 2006 - Croat) and Haris SILAJDZIC (since 1 October 2006 - Bosniak)

head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers Adnan TERZIC (since 20 December 2002)

cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the council chairman; approved by the National House of Representatives

elections: the three members of the presidency (one Bosniak, one Croat, one Serb) are elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term, but then ineligible for four years); the member with the most votes becomes the chairman unless he or she was the incumbent chairman at the time of the election, but the chairmanship rotates every eight months; election last held 1 October 2006 (next to be held in 2010); the chairman of the Council of Ministers is appointed by the presidency and confirmed by the National House of Representatives

election results: percent of vote - Nebojsa RADMANOVIC with 53.3% of the Serb vote; Zeljko KOMSIC received 39.6% of the Croat vote; Haris SILAJDZIC received 62.8% of the Bosniak vote

note: President of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Niko LOZANCIC (since 27 January 2003); Vice Presidents Sahbaz DZIHANOVIC (since in 2003) and Desnica RADIVOJEVIC (since in 2003); President of the Republika Srpska: Milan JELIC (since 9 November 2006)
Legislative branch: bicameral Parliamentary Assembly or Skupstina consists of the national House of Representatives or Predstavnicki Dom (42 seats - elected by proportional representation, 28 seats allocated from the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and 14 seats from the Republika Srpska; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); and the House of Peoples or Dom Naroda (15 seats - 5 Bosniak, 5 Croat, 5 Serb; members elected by the Bosniak/Croat Federation´s House of Representatives and the Republika Srpska´s National Assembly to serve four-year terms); note - Bosnia´s election law specifies four-year terms for the state and first-order administrative division entity legislatures

elections: national House of Representatives - elections last held 1 October 2006 (next to be held in 2010); House of Peoples - last constituted in January 2003 (next to be constituted in 2007)

election results: national House of Representatives - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA%; seats by party/coalition - SDA 9, SBiH 8, SNSD 7, SDP 5, SDS 3, HDZ-BH 3, other 7; House of Peoples - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by party/coalition - NA

note: the Bosniak/Croat Federation has a bicameral legislature that consists of a House of Representatives (98 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); elections last held 1 October 2006 (next to be held in October 2010); percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party/coalition - SDA 28, SBiH 24, SDP 17, HDZ-BH 8, HDZ100 7, other 14; and a House of Peoples (60 seats - 30 Bosniak, 30 Croat); last constituted December 2002; the Republika Srpska has a National Assembly (83 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); elections last held 1 October 2006 (next to be held in the fall of 2010); percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party/coalition - SNSD 41, SDS 17, PDP 8, DNS 4, SBH 4, SPRS 3, SDA 3, other 3; as a result of the 2002 constitutional reform process, a 28-member Republika Srpska Council of Peoples (COP) was established in the Republika Srpska National Assembly including eight Croats, eight Bosniaks, eight Serbs, and four members of the smaller communities
Judicial branch: BH Constitutional Court (consists of nine members: four members are selected by the Bosniak/Croat Federation´s House of Representatives, two members by the Republika Srpska´s National Assembly, and three non-Bosnian members by the president of the European Court of Human Rights); BH State Court (consists of nine judges and three divisions - Administrative, Appellate and Criminal - having jurisdiction over cases related to state-level law and appellate jurisdiction over cases initiated in the entities); note - a War Crimes Chamber opened in March 2005

note: the entities each have a Supreme Court; each entity also has a number of lower courts; there are 10 cantonal courts in the Federation, plus a number of municipal courts; the Republika Srpska has five municipal courts
Political parties and leaders: Alliance of Independent Social Democrats or SNSD [Milorad DODIK]; Bosnian Party or BOSS [Mirnes AJANOVIC]; Civic Democratic Party or GDS [Ibrahim SPAHIC]; Croat Christian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina or HKDU [Marin TOPIC]; Croat Party of Rights or HSP [Zvonko JURISIC]; Croat Peasants Party or HSS [Marko TADIC]; Croatian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina or HDZ-BH [Dragan COVIC]; Croatian Democratic Union 100 or HDZ100; Croatian Peoples Union [Milenko BRKIC]; Democratic National Union or DNZ [Rifet DOLIC]; Democratic Peoples Alliance or DNS [Marko PAVIC]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDS [Rasim KADIC]; New Croat Initiative or NHI [Kresimir ZUBAK]; Party for Bosnia and Herzegovina or SBiH [Haris SILAJDZIC]; Party for Democratic Action or SDA [Sulejman TIHIC]; Party of Democratic Progress or PDP [Mladen IVANIC]; Serb Democratic Party or SDS [Dragan CAVIC]; Serb Radical Party of the Republika Srpska or SRS-RS [Milanko MIHAJLICA]; Serb Radical Party-Dr. Vojislav Seselj or SRS-VS [Radislav KANJERIC]; Social Democratic Party of BIH or SDP [Zlatko LAGUMDZIJA]; Social Democratic Union or SDU [Sejfudin TOKIC]; Socialist Party of Republika Srpska or SPRS [Petar DJOKIC]
Political pressure groups and leaders: NA
International organization participation: BIS, CE, CEI, EBRD, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, MONUC, NAM (guest), OAS (observer), OIC (observer), OPCW, OSCE, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Bisera TURKOVIC

chancery: 2109 E Street NW, Washington, DC 20037

telephone: [1] (202) 337-1500

FAX: [1] (202) 337-1502

consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Douglas L. McELHANEY

embassy: Alipasina 43, 71000 Sarajevo

mailing address: use street address

telephone: [387] (33) 445-700

FAX: [387] (33) 659-722

branch office(s): Banja Luka, Mostar
Flag description: a wide medium blue vertical band on the fly side with a yellow isosceles triangle abutting the band and the top of the flag; the remainder of the flag is medium blue with seven full five-pointed white stars and two half stars top and bottom along the hypotenuse of the triangle
 Economical information 
Economy - overview: Bosnia and Herzegovina ranked next to Macedonia as the poorest republic in the old Yugoslav federation. Although agriculture is almost all in private hands, farms are small and inefficient, and the republic traditionally is a net importer of food. Industry remains greatly overstaffed, a holdover from the socialist economic structure of Yugoslavia. TITO had pushed the development of military industries in the republic with the result that Bosnia was saddled with a host of industrial firms with little commercial potential. The interethnic warfare in Bosnia caused production to plummet by 80% from 1992 to 1995 and unemployment to soar. With an uneasy peace in place, output recovered in 1996-99 at high percentage rates from a low base; but output growth slowed in 2000-02. Part of the lag in output was made up in 2003-05. National-level statistics are limited and do not capture the large share of black market activity. The konvertibilna marka (convertible mark or BAM)- the national currency introduced in 1998 - is pegged to the euro, and confidence in the currency and the banking sector has increased. Implementation of privatization, however, has been slow, and local entities only reluctantly support national-level institutions. Banking reform accelerated in 2001 as all the Communist-era payments bureaus were shut down; foreign banks, primarily from Western Europe, now control most of the banking sector. A sizeable current account deficit and high unemployment rate remain the two most serious economic problems. The country receives substantial amounts of reconstruction assistance and humanitarian aid from the international community but will have to prepare for an era of declining assistance.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $23.09 billion

note: Bosnia has a large informal sector that could also be as much as 50% of official GDP (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $8.495 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 5% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $5,200 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 14.2%

industry: 30.8%

services: 55% (2002)
Labor force: 1.026 million (2001)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: NA%

industry: NA%

services: NA%
Unemployment rate: 45.5% official rate; grey economy may reduce actual unemployment to 25-30% (31 December 2004 est.)
Population below poverty line: 25% (2004 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.4% (2005 est.)
Budget: revenues: $4.373 billion

expenditures: $4.401 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products: wheat, corn, fruits, vegetables; livestock
Industries: steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, bauxite, vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, tank and aircraft assembly, domestic appliances, oil refining
Industrial production growth rate: 5.5% (2003 est.)
Electricity - production: 10.51 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 53.5%

hydro: 46.5%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2001)
Electricity - consumption: 8.849 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports: 3.2 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports: 2.271 billion kWh (2003)
Oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2003)
Oil - consumption: 21,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports: NA bbl/day
Oil - imports: NA bbl/day
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 160 million cu m (2003 est.)
Current account balance: $-2.087 billion (2005 est.)
Exports: $2.7 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities: metals, clothing, wood products
Exports - partners: Croatia 18.4%, Italy 17.1%, Slovenia 14.6%, Germany 12.8%, Austria 6.5%, Hungary 5.2%, China 4.2% (2005)
Imports: $6.8 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs
Imports - partners: Croatia 24.7%, Germany 13.7%, Slovenia 13.1%, Italy 11%, Austria 6.9%, Hungary 5.5% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $2.531 billion (2005 est.)
Debt - external: $3.116 billion (2005 est.)
Currency (code): marka (BAM)
Currency code: BAM
Exchange rates: marka per United States dollar - 1.5727 (2005), 1.5752 (2004), 1.7329 (2003), 2.0782 (2002), 2.1857 (2001)

note: the marka is pegged to the euro
Fiscal year: calendar year
 Transportations information 
Airports: 28 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways: total: 8

2,438 to 3,047 m: 4

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

under 914 m: 3 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 20

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 7

under 914 m: 12 (2006)
Heliports: 5 (2006)
Railways: total: 608 km (777 km electrified)

standard gauge: 608 km 1.435-m gauge (2005)
Roadways: total: 21,846 km

paved: 11,425 km (4,686 km of interurban roads)

unpaved: 10,421 km (2005)
Waterways: Sava River (northern border) open to shipping but use limited (2006)
Ports and terminals: Bosanska Gradiska, Bosanski Brod, Bosanski Samac, and Brcko (all inland waterway ports on the Sava), Orasje
 Military information 
Military branches: VF Army (the air and air defense forces are subordinate commands within the Army), VRS Army (the air and air defense forces are subordinate commands within the Army)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for compulsory military service in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina; 16 years of age in times of war; 18 years of age for Republika Srpska; 17 years of age for voluntary military service in the Federation and in the Republika Srpska; by law, military obligations cover all healthy men between the ages of 18 and 60, and all women between the ages of 18 and 55; service obligation is four months (July 2004)
Manpower available for military service: males age 18-49: 1,119,508

females age 18-49: 1,079,435 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 18-49: 910,539

females age 18-49: 881,446 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually: males age 18-49: 32,942

females age 18-49: 31,466 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure: $234.3 million (FY02)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 4.5% (FY02)
 Information about transnational issues 
Disputes - international: Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia and Montenegro have delimited most of their boundary, but sections along the Drina River remain in dispute; discussions continue with Croatia on several small disputed sections of the boundary related to maritime access that hinder ratification of the 1999 border agreement
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 19,213 (Croatia)

IDPs: 309,200 (Bosnian Croats, Serbs, and Muslims displaced in 1992-95 war) (2005)
Illicit drugs: minor transit point for marijuana and opiate trafficking routes to Western Europe; remains highly vulnerable to money-laundering activity given a primarily cash-based and unregulated economy, weak law enforcement, and instances of corruption

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