SPAMfighter information about
 

Bhutan

The data on this page is obtained from The World Factbook.
 Communications information 
SPAMfighters: 27
Internet users: 25,000 (2005)
Internet hosts: 7,567 (2006)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA
Internet country code: .bt
Telephones - main lines in use: 32,700 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 37,800 (2005)
Telephone system: general assessment: telecommunications facilities are poor

domestic: very low teledensity; domestic service is very poor especially in rural areas; wireless service available since 2003

international: country code - 975; international telephone and telegraph service via landline and microwave relay through India; satellite earth station - 1 (2005)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 9, shortwave 1 (2006)
Radios: 37,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 1 (2006)
Televisions: 11,000 (1997)
 Geographical information 
Location: Southern Asia, between China and India
Geographic coordinates: 27 30 N, 90 30 E
Map references: Asia
Area: total: 47,000 sq km

land: 47,000 sq km

water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative: about half the size of Indiana
Land boundaries: total: 1,075 km

border countries: China 470 km, India 605 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot summers in central valleys; severe winters and cool summers in Himalayas
Terrain: mostly mountainous with some fertile valleys and savanna
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Drangme Chhu 97 m

highest point: Kula Kangri 7,553 m
Natural resources: timber, hydropower, gypsum, calcium carbonate
Land use: arable land: 2.3%

permanent crops: 0.43%

other: 97.27% (2005)
Irrigated land: 400 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: violent storms from the Himalayas are the source of the country´s name, which translates as Land of the Thunder Dragon; frequent landslides during the rainy season
Environment - current issues: soil erosion; limited access to potable water
Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes

signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - note: landlocked; strategic location between China and India; controls several key Himalayan mountain passes
 People information 
Population: 2,279,723

note: other estimates range as low as 810,000 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 38.9% (male 458,801/female 426,947)

15-64 years: 57.1% (male 671,057/female 631,078)

65 years and over: 4% (male 46,217/female 45,623) (2006 est.)
Median age: total: 20.4 years

male: 20.2 years

female: 20.6 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.1% (2006 est.)
Birth rate: 33.65 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate: 12.7 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.01 male(s)/female

total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 98.41 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 96.14 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 100.79 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 54.78 years

male: 55.02 years

female: 54.53 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate: 4.74 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: less than 100 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Nationality: noun: Bhutanese (singular and plural)

adjective: Bhutanese
Ethnic groups: Bhote 50%, ethnic Nepalese 35% (includes Lhotsampas - one of several Nepalese ethnic groups), indigenous or migrant tribes 15%
Religions: Lamaistic Buddhist 75%, Indian- and Nepalese-influenced Hinduism 25%
Languages: Dzongkha (official), Bhotes speak various Tibetan dialects, Nepalese speak various Nepalese dialects
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 47%

male: 60%

female: 34% (2003 est.)
 Governmental information 
Country name: conventional long form: Kingdom of Bhutan

conventional short form: Bhutan

local long form: Druk Gyalkhap

local short form: Druk Yul
Government type: monarchy; special treaty relationship with India
Capital: name: Thimphu

geographic coordinates: 27 28 N, 89 39 E

time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 18 districts (dzongkhag, singular and plural); Bumthang, Chhukha, Chirang, Dagana, Geylegphug, Ha, Lhuntshi, Mongar, Paro, Pemagatsel, Punakha, Samchi, Samdrup Jongkhar, Shemgang, Tashigang, Thimphu, Tongsa, Wangdi Phodrang

note: there may be two new districts named Gasa and Yangtse
Independence: 8 August 1949 (from India)
National holiday: National Day (Ugyen WANGCHUCK became first hereditary king), 17 December (1907)
Constitution: no written constitution or bill of rights; note - in 2001, the king commissioned the drafting of a constitution, and in March 2005 publicly unveiled it; is awaiting national referendum
Legal system: based on Indian law and English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: each family has one vote in village-level elections; note - in late 2003 Bhutan´s legislature passed a new election law
Executive branch: chief of state: King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK (since 24 July 1972)

head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers Sangay NGEDUP (since 5 September 2005)

cabinet: Council of Ministers (Lhengye Shungtsog) nominated by the monarch, approved by the National Assembly; members serve fixed, five-year terms; note - there is also a Royal Advisory Council (Lodoi Tsokde), members nominated by the monarch

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary, but democratic reforms in July 1998 grant the National Assembly authority to remove the monarch with two-thirds vote
Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Tshogdu (150 seats; 105 elected from village constituencies, 10 represent religious bodies, and 35 are designated by the monarch to represent government and other secular interests; members serve three-year terms)

elections: local elections last held August 2005 (next to be held in 2008)

election results: NA
Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Appeal (the monarch); High Court (judges appointed by the monarch)
Political parties and leaders: no legal parties
Political pressure groups and leaders: Buddhist clergy; ethnic Nepalese organizations leading militant antigovernment campaign; Indian merchant community; United Front for Democracy (exiled)
International organization participation: AsDB, BIMSTEC, CP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OPCW, SAARC, SACEP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US: none; note - Bhutan has a Permanent Mission to the UN; address: 2 United Nations Plaza, 27th Floor, New York, NY 10017; telephone [1] (212) 826-1919; FAX [1] (212) 826-2998; the Bhutanese mission to the UN has consular jurisdiction in the US

consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: the US and Bhutan have no formal diplomatic relations, although informal contact is maintained between the Bhutanese and US Embassy in New Delhi (India)
Flag description: divided diagonally from the lower hoist side corner; the upper triangle is yellow and the lower triangle is orange; centered along the dividing line is a large black and white dragon facing away from the hoist side
 Economical information 
Economy - overview: The economy, one of the world´s smallest and least developed, is based on agriculture and forestry, which provide the main livelihood for more than 90% of the population. Agriculture consists largely of subsistence farming and animal husbandry. Rugged mountains dominate the terrain and make the building of roads and other infrastructure difficult and expensive. The economy is closely aligned with India´s through strong trade and monetary links and dependence on India´s financial assistance. The industrial sector is technologically backward, with most production of the cottage industry type. Most development projects, such as road construction, rely on Indian migrant labor. Bhutan´s hydropower potential and its attraction for tourists are key resources. Model education, social, and environment programs are underway with support from multilateral development organizations. Each economic program takes into account the government´s desire to protect the country´s environment and cultural traditions. For example, the government, in its cautious expansion of the tourist sector, encourages visits by upscale, environmentally conscientious tourists. Detailed controls and uncertain policies in areas like industrial licensing, trade, labor, and finance continue to hamper foreign investment.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $2.9 billion (2003 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $840.5 million
GDP - real growth rate: 5.9% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $1,400 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 25.8%

industry: 37.9%

services: 36.3% (2002 est.)
Labor force: NA

note: major shortage of skilled labor
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 93%

industry: 2%

services: 5%
Unemployment rate: NA%
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7% (2005 est.)
Budget: revenues: $346.6 million

expenditures: including capital expenditures of $NA

note: the government of India finances nearly three-fifths of Bhutan´s budget expenditures (FY95/96 est.)
Agriculture - products: rice, corn, root crops, citrus, foodgrains; dairy products, eggs
Industries: cement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic beverages, calcium carbide
Industrial production growth rate: 9.3% (1996 est.)
Electricity - production: 1.882 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 0.1%

hydro: 99.9%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2001)
Electricity - consumption: 250.3 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports: 1.51 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports: 10 million kWh (2003)
Oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2003)
Oil - consumption: 1,100 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports: NA bbl/day
Oil - imports: NA bbl/day
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2003 est.)
Exports: $154 million f.o.b. (2000 est.)
Exports - commodities: electricity (to India), cardamom, gypsum, timber, handicrafts, cement, fruit, precious stones, spices
Exports - partners: Japan 33.2%, Germany 13.6%, France 13.5%, South Korea 7.8%, US 7.7%, Thailand 5.8%, Italy 5.1% (2005)
Imports: $196 million c.i.f. (2000 est.)
Imports - commodities: fuel and lubricants, grain, machinery and parts, vehicles, fabrics, rice
Imports - partners: Hong Kong 68.4%, Mexico 20.8%, France 3.9% (2005)
Debt - external: $593 million (2004)
Currency (code): ngultrum (BTN); Indian rupee (INR)
Currency code: BTN; INR
Exchange rates: ngultrum per US dollar - 44.101 (2005), 45.317 (2004), 46.583 (2003), 48.61 (2002), 47.186 (2001)
Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June
 Transportations information 
Airports: 2 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways: total: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2006)
Roadways: total: 8,050 km

paved: 4,991 km

unpaved: 3,059 km (2003)
 Military information 
Military branches: Royal Bhutan Army: Royal Bodyguard, Royal Bhutan Police (2005)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2001)
Manpower available for military service: males age 18-49: 483,860

females age 18-49: 453,683 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 18-49: 314,975

females age 18-49: 296,833 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually: males age 18-49: 23,939

females age 18-49: 21,979 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure: $8.29 million (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1% (2005 est.)
 Information about transnational issues 
Disputes - international: approximately 105,000 Bhutanese have lived decades as refugees in Nepal, 90% of whom reside in seven UN Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees camps; Bhutan cooperates with India to expel Indian separatists

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