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SPAMfighter information about
 

Estonia

The data on this page is obtained from The World Factbook.
 Communications information 
SPAMfighters: 2,385
Internet users: 690,000 (2005)
Internet hosts: 52,241 (2006)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 38 (2001)
Internet country code: .ee
Telephones - main lines in use: 442,000 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 1.445 million (2005)
Telephone system: general assessment: foreign investment in the form of joint business ventures greatly improved telephone service; substantial fiber-optic cable systems carry telephone, TV, and radio traffic in the digital mode; Internet services are available throughout most of the country

domestic: a wide range of high quality voice, data, and Internet services is available throughout the country

international: country code - 372; fiber-optic cables to Finland, Sweden, Latvia, and Russia provide worldwide packet-switched service; two international switches are located in Tallinn (2001)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 98, shortwave 0 (2001)
Radios: 1.01 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 3 (2001)
Televisions: 605,000 (1997)
 Geographical information 
Location: Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland, between Latvia and Russia
Geographic coordinates: 59 00 N, 26 00 E
Map references: Europe
Area: total: 45,226 sq km

land: 43,211 sq km

water: 2,015 sq km

note: includes 1,520 islands in the Baltic Sea
Area - comparative: slightly smaller than New Hampshire and Vermont combined
Land boundaries: total: 633 km

border countries: Latvia 339 km, Russia 294 km
Coastline: 3,794 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: limits fixed in coordination with neighboring states
Climate: maritime, wet, moderate winters, cool summers
Terrain: marshy, lowlands; flat in the north, hilly in the south
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m

highest point: Suur Munamagi 318 m
Natural resources: oil shale, peat, phosphorite, clay, limestone, sand, dolomite, arable land, sea mud
Land use: arable land: 12.05%

permanent crops: 0.35%

other: 87.6% (2005)
Irrigated land: 40 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: sometimes flooding occurs in the spring
Environment - current issues: air polluted with sulfur dioxide from oil-shale burning power plants in northeast; however, the amount of pollutants emitted to the air have fallen steadily, the emissions of 2000 were 80% less than in 1980; the amount of unpurified wastewater discharged to water bodies in 2000 was one twentieth the level of 1980; in connection with the start-up of new water purification plants, the pollution load of wastewater decreased; Estonia has more than 1,400 natural and manmade lakes, the smaller of which in agricultural areas need to be monitored; coastal seawater is polluted in certain locations
Environment - international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ship Pollution, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note: the mainland terrain is flat, boggy, and partly wooded; offshore lie more than 1,500 islands
 People information 
Population: 1,324,333 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 15.2% (male 103,367/female 97,587)

15-64 years: 67.6% (male 427,043/female 468,671)

65 years and over: 17.2% (male 75,347/female 152,318) (2006 est.)
Median age: total: 39.3 years

male: 35.8 years

female: 42.6 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate: -0.64% (2006 est.)
Birth rate: 10.04 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate: 13.25 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate: -3.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.5 male(s)/female

total population: 0.84 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 7.73 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 8.91 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 6.47 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 72.04 years

male: 66.58 years

female: 77.83 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.4 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 1.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 7,800 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 200 (2003 est.)
Nationality: noun: Estonian(s)

adjective: Estonian
Ethnic groups: Estonian 67.9%, Russian 25.6%, Ukrainian 2.1%, Belarusian 1.3%, Finn 0.9%, other 2.2% (2000 census)
Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 13.6%, Orthodox 12.8%, other Christian (including Methodist, Seventh-Day Adventist, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal) 1.4%, unaffiliated 34.1%, other and unspecified 32%, none 6.1% (2000 census)
Languages: Estonian (official) 67.3%, Russian 29.7%, other 2.3%, unknown 0.7% (2000 census)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99.8%

male: 99.8%

female: 99.8% (2003 est.)
 Governmental information 
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Estonia

conventional short form: Estonia

local long form: Eesti Vabariik

local short form: Eesti

former: Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic
Government type: parliamentary republic
Capital: name: Tallinn

geographic coordinates: 59 25 N, 24 45 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions: 15 counties (maakonnad, singular - maakond): Harjumaa (Tallinn), Hiiumaa (Kardla), Ida-Virumaa (Johvi), Jarvamaa (Paide), Jogevamaa (Jogeva), Laanemaa (Haapsalu), Laane-Virumaa (Rakvere), Parnumaa (Parnu), Polvamaa (Polva), Raplamaa (Rapla), Saaremaa (Kuressaare), Tartumaa (Tartu), Valgamaa (Valga), Viljandimaa (Viljandi), Vorumaa (Voru)

note: counties have the administrative center name following in parentheses
Independence: 20 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday: Independence Day, 24 February (1918); note - 24 February 1918 is the date Estonia declared its independence from Soviet Russia; 20 August 1991 is the date it declared its independence from the Soviet Union
Constitution: adopted 28 June 1992
Legal system: based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal for all Estonian citizens
Executive branch: chief of state: President Toomas Hendrik ILVES (since 9 October 2006)

head of government: Prime Minister Andrus ANSIP (since 12 April 2005)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister, approved by Parliament

elections: president elected by Parliament for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); if a candidate does not secure two-thirds of the votes after three rounds of balloting in the Parliament, then an electoral assembly (made up of Parliament plus members of local governments) elects the president, choosing between the two candidates with the largest percentage of votes; election last held 23 September 2006 (next to be held fall of 2011); prime minister nominated by the president and approved by Parliament

election results: Toomas Hendrik ILVES elected president on 23 September 2006 by a 345-member electoral assembly; ILVES received 174 votes to incumbent Arnold RUUTEL´s 162; remaining 9 ballots left blank or invalid
Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Riigikogu (101 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 2 March 2003 (next to be held March 2007)

election results: percent of vote by party - Center Party of Estonia 25.4%, Res Publica 24.6%, Estonian Reform Party 17.7%, Estonian People´s Union 13%, Pro Patria Union (Fatherland League) 7.3% People´s Party Moodukad 7%; seats by party - Res Publica 26, Center Party 20, Reform Party 19, Estonian People´s Union 13, Pro Patria Union 7, Social Democrats (formerly People´s Party Moodukad) 6, non-affiliated (Social Liberals and independents) 10
Judicial branch: National Court (chairman appointed by Parliament for life)
Political parties and leaders: Center Party of Estonia (Keskerakond) [Edgar SAVISAAR, chairman]; Estonian People´s Union (Rahvaliit) [Villu REILJAN, chairman]; Estonian Reform Party (Reformierakond) [Andrus ANSIP]; Estonian United Russian People´s Party or EUVRP [Yevgeniy TOMBERG, chairman]; Social Democratic Party (formerly People´s Party Moodukad or Moderates) [Ivari PADAR, chairman]; Social Liberals (group of eight parliamentarians, former Center Party members) [Peeter KREITZBERG]; Union of Pro Patria and Res Publica (Isamaa je Res Publica Liit) [Tonis LUKAS and Taavi VESKIMAGI, co-chairman]
Political pressure groups and leaders: NA
International organization participation: Australia Group, BA, BIS, CBSS, CE, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EU (new member), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, NATO, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Juri LUIK

chancery: 2131 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 588-0101

FAX: [1] (202) 588-0108

consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Aldona Zofia WOS

embassy: Kentmanni 20, 15099 Tallinn

mailing address: use embassy street address

telephone: [372] 668-8100

FAX: [372] 668-8134
Flag description: pre-1940 flag restored by Supreme Soviet in May 1990 - three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), black, and white
 Economical information 
Economy - overview: Estonia, as a new member of the World Trade Organization and the European Union, has transitioned effectively to a modern market economy with strong ties to the West, including the pegging of its currency to the euro. The economy benefits from strong electronics and telecommunications sectors and is greatly influenced by developments in Finland, Sweden, and Germany, three major trading partners. The current account deficit remains high; however, the state budget is essentially in balance, and public debt is low.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $23.34 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $12.19 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 10.5% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $17,500 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 4%

industry: 29.4%

services: 66.6% (2005 est.)
Labor force: 670,000 (2005 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 11%

industry: 20%

services: 69% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate: 7.8% (2005)
Population below poverty line: Below $2.15 per day (PPP) 5% (2003)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.9%

highest 10%: 28.5% (2000)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.1% (2005 est.)
Budget: revenues: $4.91 billion

expenditures: $4.7 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products: potatoes, vegetables; livestock and dairy products; fish
Industries: engineering, electronics, wood and wood products, textile; information technology, telecommunications
Industrial production growth rate: 9.7% (2005 est.)
Electricity - production: 10.304 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 99.8%

hydro: 0.1%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0.2% (2001)
Electricity - consumption: 6.26 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - exports: 2.141 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - imports: 347 million kWh (2004)
Oil - production: 6,000 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - consumption: 60,000 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - imports: 54,000 bbl/day (2004)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2004)
Natural gas - consumption: 1.42 billion cu m (2004)
Current account balance: $-1.375 billion (2005 est.)
Exports: $7.439 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment 33%, wood and paper 15%, textiles 14%, food products 8%, furniture 7%, metals, chemical products (2001)
Exports - partners: Finland 26.5%, Sweden 12.9%, Latvia 8.8%, Russia 6.5%, Germany 6.2%, Lithuania 4.8% (2005)
Imports: $9.189 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment 33.5%, chemical products 11.6%, textiles 10.3%, foodstuffs 9.4%, transportation equipment 8.9% (2001)
Imports - partners: Finland 19.8%, Germany 13.8%, Russia 9.4%, Sweden 8.8%, Lithuania 6.1%, Latvia 4.7% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $1.948 billion (2005 est.)
Debt - external: $11.03 billion (2005 est.)
Currency (code): Estonian kroon (EEK)
Currency code: EEK
Exchange rates: krooni per US dollar - 12.584 (2005), 12.596 (2004), 13.856 (2003), 16.612 (2002), 17.478 (2001), note - the krooni is pegged to the euro
Fiscal year: calendar year
 Transportations information 
Airports: 24 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways: total: 12

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 7

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 12

over 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 4

under 914 m: 5 (2006)
Heliports: 1 (2006)
Pipelines: gas 859 km (2006)
Railways: total: 958 km

broad gauge: 958 km 1.520 m/1.524-m gauge (2005)
Roadways: total: 56,849 km

paved: 13,303 km (including 99 km of expressways)

unpaved: 45,546 km (2003)
Waterways: 500 km (2005)
Merchant marine: total: 35 ships (1000 GRT or over) 388,723 GRT/98,393 DWT

by type: cargo 7, passenger/cargo 26, petroleum tanker 2

foreign-owned: 4 (Denmark 2, Norway 2)

registered in other countries: 72 (Antigua and Barbuda 12, Bahamas 1, Belize 3, Cyprus 6, Dominica 11, Isle of Man 2, Liberia 1, Malta 4, Norway 1, Panama 3, Russia 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 25, Slovakia 1, Vanuatu 1) (2006)
Ports and terminals: Kopli, Kuivastu, Muuga, Tallinn, Virtsu
 Military information 
Military branches: Estonian Defense Forces: Land Force, Navy, Air Force, Volunteer Defense League (Kaitseliit, KL) (2006)
Military service age and obligation: compulsory military service for men between 19 and 28; conscription lasts 11 months for junior NCOs and reserve platoon leaders; reserve officers and designated specialists have a different conscript service obligation; Estonia has committed to retaining conscription for men up to 2010 and, unlike Latvia and Lithuania, has no plan to transition to a contract armed forces; 17 years of age for volunteers; reserve commitment up to the age of 60 (2006)
Manpower available for military service: males age 18-49: 291,696

females age 18-49: 304,961 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 18-49: 200,382 (in 2004, 51% of the young men called up for service were determined to be unfit; main obstacles to conscription were psychiatric and behavioral)

females age 18-49: 250,351 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually: males: 11,146

females age 18-49: 10,605 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure: $155 million (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2% (2002 est.)
 Information about transnational issues 
Disputes - international: in 2005, Russia refuses to sign the 1996 technical border agreement with Estonia when Estonia prepares a unilateral declaration referencing Soviet occupation and territorial losses; Russia demands better accommodation of Russian-speaking population in Estonia; Estonian citizen groups continue to press for realignment of the boundary based on the 1920 Tartu Peace Treaty that would bring the now divided ethnic Setu people and parts of the Narva region within Estonia; as a member state that forms part of the EU´s external border, Estonia must implement the strict Schengen border rules
Illicit drugs: transshipment point for opiates and cannabis from Southwest Asia and the Caucasus via Russia, cocaine from Latin America to Western Europe and Scandinavia, and synthetic drugs from Western Europe to Scandinavia; increasing domestic drug abuse problem; possible precursor manufacturing and/or trafficking; potential money laundering related to organized crime and drug trafficking is a concern, as is possible use of the gambling sector to launder funds

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