SPAMfighter information about
 

Hungary

The data on this page is obtained from The World Factbook.
 Communications information 
SPAMfighters: 18,537
Internet users: 3.05 million (2005)
Internet hosts: 608,085 (2006)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 16 (2000)
Internet country code: .hu
Telephones - main lines in use: 3.356 million (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 9.32 million (2005)
Telephone system: general assessment: the telephone system has been modernized and is capable of satisfying all requests for telecommunication service

domestic: the system is digitalized and highly automated; trunk services are carried by fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay; a program for fiber-optic subscriber connections was initiated in 1996; heavy use is made of mobile cellular telephones

international: country code - 36; Hungary has fiber-optic cable connections with all neighboring countries; the international switch is in Budapest; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean regions), 1 Inmarsat, 1 very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system of ground terminals
Radio broadcast stations: AM 17, FM 57, shortwave 3 (1998)
Radios: 7.01 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 35 (plus 161 low-power repeaters) (1995)
Televisions: 4.42 million (1997)
 Geographical information 
Location: Central Europe, northwest of Romania
Geographic coordinates: 47 00 N, 20 00 E
Map references: Europe
Area: total: 93,030 sq km

land: 92,340 sq km

water: 690 sq km
Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Indiana
Land boundaries: total: 2,171 km

border countries: Austria 366 km, Croatia 329 km, Romania 443 km, Serbia 151 km, Slovakia 677 km, Slovenia 102 km, Ukraine 103 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers
Terrain: mostly flat to rolling plains; hills and low mountains on the Slovakian border
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Tisza River 78 m

highest point: Kekes 1,014 m
Natural resources: bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils, arable land
Land use: arable land: 49.58%

permanent crops: 2.06%

other: 48.36% (2005)
Irrigated land: 2,300 sq km (2003)
Environment - current issues: the upgrading of Hungary´s standards in waste management, energy efficiency, and air, soil, and water pollution to meet EU requirements will require large investments
Environment - international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulfur 94
Geography - note: landlocked; strategic location astride main land routes between Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between Ukraine and Mediterranean basin; the north-south flowing Duna (Danube) and Tisza Rivers divide the country into three large regions
 People information 
Population: 9,981,334 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 15.6% (male 799,163/female 755,389)

15-64 years: 69.2% (male 3,403,375/female 3,505,640)

65 years and over: 15.2% (male 550,297/female 967,470) (2006 est.)
Median age: total: 38.7 years

male: 36.3 years

female: 41.4 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate: -0.25% (2006 est.)
Birth rate: 9.72 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate: 13.11 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate: 0.86 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.57 male(s)/female

total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 8.39 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 9.09 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 7.64 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 72.66 years

male: 68.45 years

female: 77.14 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.32 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 2,800 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (2001 est.)
Nationality: noun: Hungarian(s)

adjective: Hungarian
Ethnic groups: Hungarian 92.3%, Roma 1.9%, other or unknown 5.8% (2001 census)
Religions: Roman Catholic 51.9%, Calvinist 15.9%, Lutheran 3%, Greek Catholic 2.6%, other Christian 1%, other or unspecified 11.1%, unaffiliated 14.5% (2001 census)
Languages: Hungarian 93.6%, other or unspecified 6.4% (2001 census)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99.4%

male: 99.5%

female: 99.3% (2003 est.)
 Governmental information 
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Hungary

conventional short form: Hungary

local long form: Magyar Koztarsasag

local short form: Magyarorszag
Government type: parliamentary democracy
Capital: name: Budapest

geographic coordinates: 47 30 N, 19 05 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions: 19 counties (megyek, singular - megye), 22 urban counties (singular - megyei varos), and 1 capital city (fovaros)

counties: Bacs-Kiskun, Baranya, Bekes, Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen, Csongrad, Fejer, Gyor-Moson-Sopron, Hajdu-Bihar, Heves, Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok, Komarom-Esztergom, Nograd, Pest, Somogy, Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg, Tolna, Vas, Veszprem, Zala

urban counties: Bekescsaba, Debrecen, Dunaujvaros, Eger, Gyor, Hodmezovasarhely, Kaposvar, Kecskemet, Miskolc, Nagykanizsa, Nyiregyhaza, Pecs, Salgotarjan, Sopron, Szeged, Szekesfehervar, Szekszard, Szolnok, Szombathely, Tatabanya, Veszprem, Zalaegerszeg

capital city: Budapest
Independence: 1001 (unification by King Stephen I)
National holiday: Saint Stephen´s Day, 20 August
Constitution: 18 August 1949, effective 20 August 1949; revised 19 April 1972; 18 October 1989 revision ensured legal rights for individuals and constitutional checks on the authority of the prime minister and also established the principle of parliamentary oversight; 1997 amendment streamlined the judicial system
Legal system: rule of law based on Western model; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: Laszlo SOLYOM (since 5 August 2005)

head of government: Prime Minister Ferenc GYURCSANY (since 29 September 2004)

cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president

elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 6-7 June 2005 (next to be held by June 2010); prime minister elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president; election last held 29 September 2004

election results: Laszlo SOLYOM elected president by a simple majority in the third round of voting, 185 to 182; Ferenc GYURCSANY elected prime minister; result of legislative vote - 197 to 12

note: to be elected, the president must win two-thirds of legislative vote in the first two rounds or a simple majority in the third round
Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Orszaggyules (386 seats; members are elected by popular vote under a system of proportional and direct representation to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 9 and 23 April 2006 (next to be held April 2010)

election results: percent of vote by party (5% or more of the vote required for parliamentary representation in the first round) - MSzP 43.2%, Fidesz-KDNP 42%, SzDSz 6.5%, MDF 5%, other 3.3%; seats by party - MSzP 190, Fidesz 141, KDNP 23, SzDSz 20, MDF 11, independent 1
Judicial branch: Constitutional Court (judges are elected by the National Assembly for nine-year terms)
Political parties and leaders: Alliance of Free Democrats or SzDSz [Gabor KUNCZE]; Christian Democratic People´s Party or KDNP [Zsolt SEMJEN]; Hungarian Civic Alliance or Fidesz [Viktor ORBAN, chairman]; Hungarian Democratic Forum or MDF [Ibolya DAVID]; Hungarian Socialist Party or MSzP [Istvan HILLER, chairman]
Political pressure groups and leaders: NA
International organization participation: ACCT (observer), Australia Group, BIS, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, ESA (cooperating state), EU (new member), FAO, G- 9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, MINURSO, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOMIG, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (associate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Andras SIMONYI

chancery: 3910 Shoemaker Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 362-6730

FAX: [1] (202) 966-8135

consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador April H. FOLEY

embassy: Szabadsag ter 12, H-1054 Budapest

mailing address: pouch: American Embassy Budapest, 5270 Budapest Place, US Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5270

telephone: [36] (1) 475-4400

FAX: [36] (1) 475-4764
Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and green
 Economical information 
Economy - overview: Hungary has made the transition from a centrally planned to a market economy, with a per capita income about 60% of the EU-25 average. Hungary continues to demonstrate strong economic growth and acceded to the EU in May 2004. The private sector accounts for over 80% of GDP. Foreign ownership of and investment in Hungarian firms are widespread, with cumulative foreign direct investment totaling more than $34 billion between 1990 and 2003. Several private sector analysts and sovereign ratings agencies have expressed concerns over Hungary´s unsustainable budget and current account deficits. Inflation has declined from 14% in 1998 to 3.5% in 2005. Unemployment in 2005 rose to 7.1%, its highest point since 1999; Hungary´s labor force participation rate of 57% is one of the lowest in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Germany is by far Hungary´s largest economic partner. Policy challenges include cutting the public sector deficit to 3% of GDP by 2008, from about 6.1% in 2005, and orchestrating an orderly interest rate reduction without sparking capital outflows.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $163.1 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $106.4 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 4.1% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $16,300 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 3.7%

industry: 31.2%

services: 65.1% (2005 est.)
Labor force: 4.18 million (2005 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 5.5%

industry: 33.3%

services: 61.2% (2003)
Unemployment rate: 7.2% (2005)
Population below poverty line: At-risk-of poverty rate after social transfers: 12% (2003)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 4.1%

highest 10%: 22.2% (2002)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.6% (2005 est.)
Budget: revenues: $51.4 billion

expenditures: $58.34 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products: wheat, corn, sunflower seed, potatoes, sugar beets; pigs, cattle, poultry, dairy products
Industries: mining, metallurgy, construction materials, processed foods, textiles, chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals), motor vehicles
Industrial production growth rate: 7.3% (2005 est.)
Electricity - production: 32.21 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 60.1%

hydro: 0.5%

nuclear: 39%

other: 0.3% (2001)
Electricity - consumption: 36.96 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports: 7.1 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports: 14.1 billion kWh (2003)
Oil - production: 45,190 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - consumption: 136,000 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - exports: 47,180 bbl/day (2001)
Oil - imports: 94,000 bbl/day (2004)
Natural gas - production: 3.1 billion cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 13 billion cu m (2004)
Current account balance: $-7.963 billion (2005 est.)
Exports: $61.75 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment 61.1%, other manufactures 28.7%, food products 6.5%, raw materials 2%, fuels and electricity 1.6% (2003)
Exports - partners: Germany 29.4%, Austria 5.9%, Italy 5.6%, France 5%, UK 4.7% (2005)
Imports: $64.83 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment 51.6%, other manufactures 35.7%, fuels and electricity 7.7%, food products 3.1%, raw materials 2.0% (2003)
Imports - partners: Germany 27.2%, Russia 7.5%, China 7.2%, Austria 6.7%, Italy 4.9%, France 4.8%, Netherlands 4.3% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $18.59 billion (2005 est.)
Debt - external: $66.22 billion (2005 est.)
Currency (code): forint (HUF)
Currency code: HUF
Exchange rates: forints per US dollar - 199.58 (2005), 202.75 (2004), 224.31 (2003), 257.89 (2002), 286.49 (2001)
Fiscal year: calendar year
 Transportations information 
Airports: 46 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways: total: 20

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 8

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 4

under 914 m: 2 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 26

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 11

under 914 m: 10 (2006)
Heliports: 5 (2006)
Pipelines: gas 4,397 km; oil 990 km; refined products 335 km (2006)
Railways: total: 7,937 km

broad gauge: 36 km 1.524-m gauge

standard gauge: 7,682 km 1.435-m gauge (2,628 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 219 km 0.760-m gauge (2005)
Roadways: total: 159,568 km

paved: 70,050 km (30,874 km of interurban roads including 626 km of expressways)

unpaved: 89,518 km (2005)
Waterways: 1,622 km (most on Danube River) (2006)
Ports and terminals: Budapest, Dunaujvaros, Gyor-Gonyu, Csepel, Baja, Mohacs (2003)
 Military information 
Military branches: Ground Forces, Air Forces
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished in June 2004 (2004)
Manpower available for military service: males age 18-49: 2,303,116

females age 18-49: 2,265,463 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 18-49: 1,780,513

females age 18-49: 1,864,580 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually: males age 18-49: 63,847

females age 18-49: 61,037 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1.08 billion (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.75% (2002 est.)
 Information about transnational issues 
Disputes - international: in 2004, Hungary amended the status law extending special social and cultural benefits - and voted down a referendum to extend dual citizenship - to ethnic Hungarians living in neighboring states, which have objected to such measures; consultations continue between Slovakia and Hungary over Hungary´s completion of its portion the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros hydroelectric dam project along the Danube; as a member state that forms part of the EU´s external border, Hungary must implement the strict Schengen border rules
Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and cannabis and for South American cocaine destined for Western Europe; limited producer of precursor chemicals, particularly for amphetamine and methamphetamine; improving, but remains vulnerable to money laundering related to organized crime and drug trafficking

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