SPAMfighter information about
 

Peru

The data on this page is obtained from The World Factbook.
 Communications information 
SPAMfighters: 17,381
Internet users: 4.6 million (2005)
Internet hosts: 269,981 (2006)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 10 (2000)
Internet country code: .pe
Telephones - main lines in use: 2,250,500 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 5.583 million (2005)
Telephone system: general assessment: adequate for most requirements

domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations

international: country code - 51; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); Pan American submarine cable
Radio broadcast stations: AM 472, FM 198, shortwave 189 (1999)
Radios: 6.65 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 13 (plus 112 repeaters) (1997)
Televisions: 3.06 million (1997)
 Geographical information 
Location: Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Chile and Ecuador
Geographic coordinates: 10 00 S, 76 00 W
Map references: South America
Area: total: 1,285,220 sq km

land: 1.28 million sq km

water: 5,220 sq km
Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Alaska
Land boundaries: total: 5,536 km

border countries: Bolivia 900 km, Brazil 1,560 km, Chile 160 km, Colombia 1,496 km (est.), Ecuador 1,420 km
Coastline: 2,414 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm
Climate: varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes
Terrain: western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: Nevado Huascaran 6,768 m
Natural resources: copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower, natural gas
Land use: arable land: 2.88%

permanent crops: 0.47%

other: 96.65% (2005)
Irrigated land: 12,000 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity
Environment - current issues: deforestation (some the result of illegal logging); overgrazing of the slopes of the costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes
Environment - international agreements: party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note: shares control of Lago Titicaca, world´s highest navigable lake, with Bolivia; a remote slope of Nevado Mismi, a 5,316 m peak, is the ultimate source of the Amazon River
 People information 
Population: 28,302,603 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 30.9% (male 4,456,195/female 4,300,233)

15-64 years: 63.7% (male 9,078,123/female 8,961,981)

65 years and over: 5.3% (male 709,763/female 796,308) (2006 est.)
Median age: total: 25.3 years

male: 25 years

female: 25.5 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.32% (2006 est.)
Birth rate: 20.48 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate: 6.23 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate: -1.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female

total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 30.94 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 33.49 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 28.27 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 69.84 years

male: 68.05 years

female: 71.71 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.51 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.5% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 82,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 4,200 (2003 est.)
Nationality: noun: Peruvian(s)

adjective: Peruvian
Ethnic groups: Amerindian 45%, mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 37%, white 15%, black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%
Religions: Roman Catholic 81%, Seventh Day Adventist 1.4%, other Christian 0.7%, other 0.6%, unspecified or none 16.3% (2003 est.)
Languages: Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara, and a large number of minor Amazonian languages
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 87.7%

male: 93.5%

female: 82.1% (2004 est.)
 Governmental information 
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Peru

conventional short form: Peru

local long form: Republica del Peru

local short form: Peru
Government type: constitutional republic
Capital: name: Lima

geographic coordinates: 12 03 S, 77 03 W

time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 25 regions (regiones, singular - region) and 1 province* (provincia); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Lima*, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali
Independence: 28 July 1821 (from Spain)
National holiday: Independence Day, 28 July (1821)
Constitution: 31 December 1993
Legal system: based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory until the age of 70; note - members of the military and national police may not vote
Executive branch: chief of state: President Alan GARCIA Perez (since 28 July 2006); First Vice President Luis GIAMPIETRI Rojas; Second Vice President Lourdes MENDOZA del Solar (since 28 July 2006); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Alan GARCIA Perez (since 28 July 2006); First Vice President Luis GIAMPIETRI Rojas; Second Vice President Lourdes MENDOZA del Solar (since 28 July 2006)

note: Prime Minister Jorge DEL CASTILLO Galvez (since 28 August 2006) does not exercise executive power; this power is in the hands of the president

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); presidential and congressional elections held 9 April 2006, with runoff election held 4 June 2006; next to be held April 2011

election results: Alan GARCIA elected president in runoff election; percent of vote - Alan GARCIA 52.5%, Ollanta HUMALA Tasso 47.5%
Legislative branch: unicameral Congress of the Republic of Peru or Congreso de la Republica del Peru (120 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 9 April 2006 (next to be held April 2011)

election results: percent of vote by party - UPP 21.2%, PAP 20.6%, UN 15.3%, AF 13.1%, FC 7.1%, PP 4.1%, RN 4.0%; seats by party - UPP 45, PAP 36, UN 17, AF 13, FC 5, PP 2, RN 2
Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (judges are appointed by the National Council of the Judiciary)
Political parties and leaders: Alliance For Progress (Alianza Para El Progreso) [Cesar ACUNA Peralta]; Alliance For The Future (Alianza Por El Futuro) or AF - a coalition of pro-FUJIMORI parties including Cambio 90, Nueva Mayoria, and Si Cumple [Martha CHAVEZ Cossio]; Centrist Front (Frente Del Centro) or FC - a coalition of Accion Popular, Somos Peru, and Coordinadora Nacional de Independientes [Valentin PANIAGUA Corazoa]; Independent Moralizing Front (Frente Independiente Moralizador) or FIM [Fernando OLIVERA Vega]; Nationalist Party Uniting Peru (Partido Nacionalista Uniendo al Peru) or UPP - a coalition of Union for Peru (UPP) and Peruvian Nationalist Party (PNP) [Ollanta HUMALA Tasso]; National Restoration (Restauracion Nacional) or RN [Humberto LAY Sun]; National Unity (Unidad Nacional) or UN [Lourdes FLORES Nano]; Peru Possible (Peru Posible) or PP [David WAISMAN]; Peruvian Aprista Party (Partido Aprista Peruano) or PAP - also referred to by its original name Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana or APRA [Alan GARCIA]
Political pressure groups and leaders: leftist guerrilla groups include Shining Path [Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso (imprisoned), Gabriel MACARIO (top leader at-large)]; Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement or MRTA [Victor POLAY (imprisoned), Hugo AVALLENEDA Valdez (top leader at-large)]
International organization participation: APEC, CAN, CSN, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUC, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Felipe ORTIZ de Zevallos

chancery: 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 833-9860 through 9869

FAX: [1] (202) 659-8124

consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Denver, Hartford, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (New Jersey), San Francisco, Washington, DC
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador J. Curtis STRUBLE

embassy: Avenida La Encalada, Cuadra 17s/n, Surco, Lima 33

mailing address: P. O. Box 1995, Lima 1; American Embassy (Lima), APO AA 34031-5000

telephone: [51] (1) 434-3000

FAX: [51] (1) 618-2397
Flag description: three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a vicuna, cinchona tree (the source of quinine), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out gold coins, all framed by a green wreath
 Economical information 
Economy - overview: Peru´s economy reflects its varied geography - an arid coastal region, the Andes further inland, and tropical lands bordering Colombia and Brazil. Abundant mineral resources are found in the mountainous areas, and Peru´s coastal waters provide excellent fishing grounds. However, overdependence on minerals and metals subjects the economy to fluctuations in world prices, and a lack of infrastructure deters trade and investment. After several years of inconsistent economic performance, the Peruvian economy grew by more than 4 percent per year during the period 2002-2005, with a stable exchange rate and low inflation. Risk premiums on Peruvian bonds on secondary markets reached historically low levels in late 2004, reflecting investor optimism regarding the government´s prudent fiscal policies and openness to trade and investment. Despite the strong macroeconomic performance, the TOLEDO administration remained unpopular in 2005, and unemployment and poverty have stayed persistently high. Economic growth will be driven by the Camisea natural gas megaproject and by exports of minerals, textiles, and agricultural products. Peru is expected to sign a free-trade agreement with the United States in early 2006.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $167.3 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $69.81 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 6.4% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $6,000 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 8%

industry: 27%

services: 65% (2003 est.)
Labor force: 9.06 million (2005 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 9%

industry: 18%

services: 73% (2001)
Unemployment rate: 7.6% in metropolitan Lima; widespread underemployment (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line: 54% (2003 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 0.8%

highest 10%: 37.2% (2000)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.6% (2005 est.)
Budget: revenues: $21.87 billion

expenditures: $22.47 billion; including capital expenditures of $1.8 billion for general government, but excluding private enterprises (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products: coffee, cotton, sugarcane, rice, potatoes, corn, plantains, grapes, oranges, coca; poultry, beef, dairy products; fish
Industries: mining and refining of minerals; steel, metal fabrication; petroleum extraction and refining, natural gas; fishing and fish processing, textiles, clothing, food processing
Industrial production growth rate: 6.9% (2005 est.)
Electricity - production: 22.68 billion kWh (2003 est.)
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 14.5%

hydro: 84.7%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0.8% (2001)
Electricity - consumption: 21.09 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2003)
Oil - production: 120,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - consumption: 157,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports: 49,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - imports: NA bbl/day
Natural gas - production: 560 million cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 910 million cu m (2004 est.)
Current account balance: $1.03 billion (2005 est.)
Exports: $15.95 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities: copper, gold, zinc, crude petroleum and petroleum products, coffee
Exports - partners: US 31.1%, China 10.8%, Chile 6.6%, Canada 5.9%, Switzerland 4.6% (2005)
Imports: $12.15 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities: petroleum and petroleum products, plastics, machinery, vehicles, iron and steel, wheat, paper
Imports - partners: US 18.2%, China 8.5%, Brazil 8%, Ecuador 7.4%, Colombia 6.1%, Argentina 5.1%, Chile 5.1%, Venezuela 4.1% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $14.18 billion (2005 est.)
Debt - external: $30.94 billion (2005 est.)
Currency (code): nuevo sol (PEN)
Currency code: PEN
Exchange rates: nuevo sol per US dollar - 3.2958 (2005), 3.4132 (2004), 3.4785 (2003), 3.5165 (2002), 3.5068 (2001)
Fiscal year: calendar year
 Transportations information 
Airports: 268 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways: total: 54

over 3,047 m: 6

2,438 to 3,047 m: 20

1,524 to 2,437 m: 14

914 to 1,523 m: 11

under 914 m: 3 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 214

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 26

914 to 1,523 m: 63

under 914 m: 124 (2006)
Heliports: 1 (2006)
Pipelines: gas 983 km; gas/lpg 61 km; liquid natural gas 106 km; liquid petroleum gas 517 km; oil 1,754 km; refined products 13 km (2006)
Railways: total: 3,462 km

standard gauge: 2,962 km 1.435-m gauge

narrow gauge: 500 km 0.914-m gauge (2005)
Roadways: total: 78,672 km

paved: 10,314 km (including 276 km of expressways)

unpaved: 68,358 km (2003)
Waterways: 8,808 km

note: 8,600 km of navigable tributaries of Amazon system and 208 km of Lago Titicaca (2005)
Merchant marine: total: 4 ships (1000 GRT or over) 38,954 GRT/62,255 DWT

by type: cargo 3, petroleum tanker 1

foreign-owned: 1 (US 1)

registered in other countries: 15 (Panama 15) (2006)
Ports and terminals: Callao, Iquitos, Matarani, Pucallpa, Yurimaguas; note - Iquitos, Pucallpa, and Yurimaguas are on the upper reaches of the Amazon and its tributaries
 Military information 
Military branches: Peruvian Army (Ejercito Peruano), Peruvian Navy (Marina de Guerra del Peru; includes naval air, naval infantry, and coast guard), Peruvian Air Force (Fuerza Aerea del Peru, FAP)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for compulsory military service (1999)
Manpower available for military service: males age 18-49: 6,647,874

females age 18-49: 6,544,408 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 18-49: 4,938,417

females age 18-49: 5,278,511 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually: males age 18-49: 277,105

females age 18-49: 269,799 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure: $829.3 million (2003 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.4% (2003 est.)
 Information about transnational issues 
Disputes - international: Chile and Ecuador rejected Peru´s November 2005 unilateral law to shift the axis of their joint treaty-defined maritime boundary along the parallel of latitude to an equidistance line which favors Peru; organized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia have penetrated Peru´s shared border; Peru does not support Bolivia´s claim to restore maritime access through a sovereign corridor through Chile along the Peruvian border
Refugees and internally displaced persons: IDPs: 60,000 (civil war from 1980-2000; most IDPs are indigenous peasants in Andean and Amazonian regions) (2005)
Illicit drugs: until 1996 the world´s largest coca leaf producer; cultivation of coca in Peru fell 15% to 31,150 hectares between 2002 and the end of 2003; much of the cocaine base is shipped to neighboring Colombia for processing into cocaine, while finished cocaine is shipped out from Pacific ports to the international drug market; increasing amounts of base and finished cocaine, however, are being moved to Brazil and Bolivia for use in the Southern Cone or transshipped to Europe and Africa

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