SPAMfighter information about
 

Rwanda

The data on this page is obtained from The World Factbook.
 Communications information 
SPAMfighters: 104
Internet users: 38,000 (2005)
Internet hosts: 1,590 (2006)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2002)
Internet country code: .rw
Telephones - main lines in use: 23,000 (2004)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 290,000

note: Rwanda has mobile cellular service between Kigali and several provincial capitals (2005)
Telephone system: general assessment: telephone system primarily serves business and government

domestic: the capital, Kigali, is connected to the centers of the provinces by microwave radio relay and, recently, by cellular telephone service; much of the network depends on wire and HF radiotelephone

international: country code - 250; international connections employ microwave radio relay to neighboring countries and satellite communications to more distant countries; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) in Kigali (includes telex and telefax service)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 8 (two main FM programs are broadcast through a system of repeaters, three international FM programs include the BBC, VOA, and Deutchewelle), shortwave 1 (2005)
Radios: 601,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 2 (2004)
Televisions: NA; probably less than 1,000 (1997)
 Geographical information 
Location: Central Africa, east of Democratic Republic of the Congo
Geographic coordinates: 2 00 S, 30 00 E
Map references: Africa
Area: total: 26,338 sq km

land: 24,948 sq km

water: 1,390 sq km
Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland
Land boundaries: total: 893 km

border countries: Burundi 290 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 217 km, Tanzania 217 km, Uganda 169 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: temperate; two rainy seasons (February to April, November to January); mild in mountains with frost and snow possible
Terrain: mostly grassy uplands and hills; relief is mountainous with altitude declining from west to east
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Rusizi River 950 m

highest point: Volcan Karisimbi 4,519 m
Natural resources: gold, cassiterite (tin ore), wolframite (tungsten ore), methane, hydropower, arable land
Land use: arable land: 45.56%

permanent crops: 10.25%

other: 44.19% (2005)
Irrigated land: 90 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: periodic droughts; the volcanic Virunga mountains are in the northwest along the border with Democratic Republic of the Congo
Environment - current issues: deforestation results from uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel; overgrazing; soil exhaustion; soil erosion; widespread poaching
Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - note: landlocked; most of the country is savanna grassland with the population predominantly rural
 People information 
Population: 8,648,248

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2006 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 41.9% (male 1,817,998/female 1,802,134)

15-64 years: 55.6% (male 2,392,778/female 2,417,467)

65 years and over: 2.5% (male 87,325/female 130,546) (2006 est.)
Median age: total: 18.6 years

male: 18.4 years

female: 18.8 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.43% (2006 est.)
Birth rate: 40.37 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate: 16.09 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female

total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 89.61 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 94.71 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 84.34 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 47.3 years

male: 46.26 years

female: 48.38 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate: 5.43 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 5.1% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 250,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 22,000 (2003 est.)
Nationality: noun: Rwandan(s)

adjective: Rwandan
Ethnic groups: Hutu 84%, Tutsi 15%, Twa (Pygmoid) 1%
Religions: Roman Catholic 56.5%, Protestant 26%, Adventist 11.1%, Muslim 4.6%, indigenous beliefs 0.1%, none 1.7% (2001)
Languages: Kinyarwanda (official) universal Bantu vernacular, French (official), English (official), Kiswahili (Swahili) used in commercial centers
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 70.4%

male: 76.3%

female: 64.7% (2003 est.)
 Governmental information 
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Rwanda

conventional short form: Rwanda

local long form: Republika y´u Rwanda

local short form: Rwanda

former: Ruanda, German East Africa
Government type: republic; presidential, multiparty system
Capital: name: Kigali

geographic coordinates: 1 57 S, 30 04 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 12 provinces (in French - provinces, singular - province; in Kinyarwanda - prefigintara for singular and plural); Butare, Byumba, Cyangugu, Gikongoro, Gisenyi, Gitarama, Kibungo, Kibuye, Kigali Rurale, Kigali-ville, Umutara, Ruhengeri
Independence: 1 July 1962 (from Belgium-administered UN trusteeship)
National holiday: Independence Day, 1 July (1962)
Constitution: new constitution adopted 4 June 2003
Legal system: based on German and Belgian civil law systems and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal adult
Executive branch: chief of state: President Paul KAGAME (since 22 April 2000)

head of government: Prime Minister Bernard MAKUZA (since 8 March 2000)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections: President elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term); elections last held 25 August 2003 (next to be held NA 2008)

election results: Paul KAGAME elected president in first direct popular vote; Paul KAGAME 95.05%, Faustin TWAGIRAMUNGU 3.62%, Jean-Nepomuscene NAYINZIRA 1.33%
Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of Senate (26 seats; 12 members elected local councils, 8 appointed by the president, 4 by the Political Organizations Forum, 2 represent institutions of higher learning, to serve eight-year terms) and Chamber of Deputies (80 seats; 53 members elected by popular vote, 24 women elected by local bodies, 3 selected by youth and disability organizations, to serve five-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held NA, members appointed as part of the transitional government (next to be held in 2011); Chamber of Deputies - last held 29 September 2003 (next to be held in 2008)

election results: seats by party under the 2003 Constitution - RPF 40, PSD 7, PL 6, additional 27 members indirectly elected
Judicial branch: Supreme Court; High Courts of the Republic; Provincial Courts; District Courts; mediation committees
Political parties and leaders: Centrist Democratic Party or PDC [Alfred MUKEZAMFURA]; Democratic Popular Union of Rwanda or UDPR [Adrien RANGIRA]; Democratic Republican Movement or MDR [Celestin KABANDA] (officially banned); Islamic Democratic Party or PDI [Andre BUMAYA]; Liberal Party or PL [Prosper HIGIRO]; Party for Democratic Renewal (officially banned); Rwandan Patriotic Front or RPF [Paul KAGAME]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Vincent BIRUTA]
Political pressure groups and leaders: IBUKA - association of genocide survivors
International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, CEPGL, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIS, UPU, WCL, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Zac NSENGA

chancery: 1714 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 232-2882

FAX: [1] (202) 232-4544
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Michael ARIETTI

embassy: 337 Boulevard de la Revolution, Kigali

mailing address: B. P. 28, Kigali

telephone: [250] 50 56 01 through 03

FAX: [250] 57 2128
Flag description: three horizontal bands of sky blue (top, double width), yellow, and green, with a golden sun with 24 rays near the fly end of the blue band
 Economical information 
Economy - overview: Rwanda is a poor rural country with about 90% of the population engaged in (mainly subsistence) agriculture. It is the most densely populated country in Africa and is landlocked with few natural resources and minimal industry. Primary foreign exchange earners are coffee and tea. The 1994 genocide decimated Rwanda´s fragile economic base, severely impoverished the population, particularly women, and eroded the country´s ability to attract private and external investment. However, Rwanda has made substantial progress in stabilizing and rehabilitating its economy to pre-1994 levels, although poverty levels are higher now. GDP has rebounded and inflation has been curbed. Despite Rwanda´s fertile ecosystem, food production often does not keep pace with population growth, requiring food imports. Rwanda continues to receive substantial aid money and obtained IMF-World Bank Heavily Indebted Poor Country (HIPC) initiative debt relief in 2005. Kigali´s high defense expenditures have caused tension between the government and international donors and lending agencies. An energy shortage and instability in neighboring states may slow growth in 2006, while the lack of adequate transportation linkages to other countries continues to handicap export growth.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $12.54 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $1.817 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 5.2% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $1,500 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 40.1%

industry: 22.9%

services: 37% (2005 est.)
Labor force: 4.6 million (2000)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 90%

industry and services: 10%
Unemployment rate: NA%
Population below poverty line: 60% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 4.2%

highest 10%: 24.2% (1985)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8% (2005 est.)
Budget: revenues: $509.9 million

expenditures: $584.6 million; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products: coffee, tea, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums), bananas, beans, sorghum, potatoes; livestock
Industries: cement, agricultural products, small-scale beverages, soap, furniture, shoes, plastic goods, textiles, cigarettes
Industrial production growth rate: 7% (2001 est.)
Electricity - production: 98 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 2.3%

hydro: 97.7%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2001)
Electricity - consumption: 121.1 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports: 30 million kWh (2003)
Oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - consumption: 6,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports: NA bbl/day
Oil - imports: NA bbl/day
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2003 est.)
Current account balance: $-166 million (2005 est.)
Exports: $98 million f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities: coffee, tea, hides, tin ore
Exports - partners: Germany 11%, China 6.5%, Belgium 4.5% (2005)
Imports: $243 million f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, steel, petroleum products, cement and construction material
Imports - partners: Kenya 23.8%, Uganda 6.2%, Belgium 5.4%, Germany 5.3% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $357 million (2005 est.)
Debt - external: $1.4 billion (2004 est.)
Currency (code): Rwandan franc (RWF)
Currency code: RWF
Exchange rates: Rwandan francs per US dollar - 610 (2005), 574.62 (2004), 537.66 (2003), 476.33 (2002), 442.8 (2001)
Fiscal year: calendar year
 Transportations information 
Airports: 9 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways: total: 4

over 3,047 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 1 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 5

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 3 (2006)
Roadways: total: 12,000 km

paved: 996 km

unpaved: 11,004 km (1999)
Waterways: Lac Kivu navigable by shallow-draft barges and native craft (2005)
Ports and terminals: Cyangugu, Gisenyi, Kibuye
 Military information 
Military branches: Rwandan Defense Forces: Army, Air Force
Military service age and obligation: 16 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2001)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 2,004,750

females age 16-49: 1,990,935 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 1,103,823

females age 16-49: 1,096,644 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure: $53.66 million (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.9% (2005 est.)
 Information about transnational issues 
Disputes - international: Tutsi, Hutu, Hema, Lendu, and other conflicting ethnic groups, associated political rebels, armed gangs, and various government forces continue fighting in Great Lakes region, transcending the boundaries of Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, and Uganda to gain control over populated areas and natural resources - government heads pledge to end conflicts, but localized violence continues despite UN peacekeeping efforts; DROC and Rwanda established a border verification mechanism in 2005 to address accusations of Rwandan military supporting Congolese rebels and the Congo providing rebel Rwandan "Interhamwe" forces the means and bases to attack Rwandan forces; as of 2004, Rwandan refugees lived in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, and Zambia
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 45,460 (Democratic Republic of the Congo)

IDPs: 4,158 (incursions by Hutu rebels from Democratic Republic of the Congo, 1997-99; most IDPs in northwest) (2005)

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