SPAMfighter information about
 

Tunisia

The data on this page is obtained from The World Factbook.
 Communications information 
SPAMfighters: 5,723
Internet users: 953,800 (2005)
Internet hosts: 428 (2006)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)
Internet country code: .tn
Telephones - main lines in use: 1,257,500 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 5.681 million (2005)
Telephone system: general assessment: above the African average and continuing to be upgraded; key centers are Sfax, Sousse, Bizerte, and Tunis; Internet access available

domestic: trunk facilities consist of open-wire lines, coaxial cable, and microwave radio relay

international: country code - 216; 5 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Algeria and Libya; participant in Medarabtel; two international gateway digital switches
Radio broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 20, shortwave 2 (1998)
Radios: 2.06 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 26 (plus 76 repeaters) (1995)
Televisions: 920,000 (1997)
 Geographical information 
Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Algeria and Libya
Geographic coordinates: 34 00 N, 9 00 E
Map references: Africa
Area: total: 163,610 sq km

land: 155,360 sq km

water: 8,250 sq km
Area - comparative: slightly larger than Georgia
Land boundaries: total: 1,424 km

border countries: Algeria 965 km, Libya 459 km
Coastline: 1,148 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm
Climate: temperate in north with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers; desert in south
Terrain: mountains in north; hot, dry central plain; semiarid south merges into the Sahara
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Shatt al Gharsah -17 m

highest point: Jebel ech Chambi 1,544 m
Natural resources: petroleum, phosphates, iron ore, lead, zinc, salt
Land use: arable land: 17.05%

permanent crops: 13.08%

other: 69.87% (2005)
Irrigated land: 3,940 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: NA
Environment - current issues: toxic and hazardous waste disposal is ineffective and poses health risks; water pollution from raw sewage; limited natural fresh water resources; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Geography - note: strategic location in central Mediterranean; Malta and Tunisia are discussing the commercial exploitation of the continental shelf between their countries, particularly for oil exploration
 People information 
Population: 10,175,014 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 24.6% (male 1,293,235/female 1,212,994)

15-64 years: 68.6% (male 3,504,283/female 3,478,268)

65 years and over: 6.7% (male 327,521/female 358,713) (2006 est.)
Median age: total: 27.8 years

male: 27.3 years

female: 28.3 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.99% (2006 est.)
Birth rate: 15.52 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate: 5.13 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female

total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 23.84 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 26.7 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 20.77 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75.12 years

male: 73.4 years

female: 76.96 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.74 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.1% (2005 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 1,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 200 (2003 est.)
Nationality: noun: Tunisian(s)

adjective: Tunisian
Ethnic groups: Arab 98%, European 1%, Jewish and other 1%
Religions: Muslim 98%, Christian 1%, Jewish and other 1%
Languages: Arabic (official and one of the languages of commerce), French (commerce)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 74.3%

male: 83.4%

female: 65.3% (2004 est.)
 Governmental information 
Country name: conventional long form: Tunisian Republic

conventional short form: Tunisia

local long form: Al Jumhuriyah at Tunisiyah

local short form: Tunis
Government type: republic
Capital: name: Tunis

geographic coordinates: 36 48 N, 10 11 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions: 24 governorates; Ariana (Aryanah), Beja (Bajah), Ben Arous (Bin ´Arus), Bizerte (Banzart), Gabes (Qabis), Gafsa (Qafsah), Jendouba (Jundubah), Kairouan (Al Qayrawan), Kasserine (Al Qasrayn), Kebili (Qibili), Kef (Al Kaf), Mahdia (Al Mahdiyah), Manouba (Manubah), Medenine (Madanin), Monastir (Al Munastir), Nabeul (Nabul), Sfax (Safaqis), Sidi Bou Zid (Sidi Bu Zayd), Siliana (Silyanah), Sousse (Susah), Tataouine (Tatawin), Tozeur (Tawzar), Tunis, Zaghouan (Zaghwan)
Independence: 20 March 1956 (from France)
National holiday: Independence Day, 20 March (1956)
Constitution: 1 June 1959; amended 1988, 2002
Legal system: based on French civil law system and Shari´a law; some judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court in joint session
Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Zine el Abidine BEN ALI (since 7 November 1987)

head of government: Prime Minister Mohamed GHANNOUCHI (since 17 November 1999)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (no term limits); election last held 24 October 2004 (next to be held October 2009); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: President Zine El Abidine BEN ALI reelected for a fourth term; percent of vote - Zine El Abidine BEN ALI 94.5%, Mohamed BOUCHIHA 3.8%, Mohamed Ali HALOUANI 1%
Legislative branch: bicameral system consists of the Chamber of Deputies or Majlis al-Nuwaab (189 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the Chamber of Advisors (126 seats; 85 members elected by municipal counselors, deputies, mayors, and professional associations and trade unions; 41 members are presidential appointees; members serve six-year terms)

elections: Chamber of Deputies - last held 24 October 2004 (next to be held October 2009); Chamber of Advisors - last held 3 July 2005 (next to be held July 2011)

election results: Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RCD 152, MDS 14, PUP 11, UDU 7, Al-Tajdid 3, PSL 2; Chamber of Advisors - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RCD 71 (14 trade union seats vacant (boycotted))
Judicial branch: Court of Cassation or Cour de Cassation
Political parties and leaders: Al-Tajdid Movement [Ali HALOUANI]; Constitutional Democratic Rally Party (Rassemblement Constitutionnel Democratique) or RCD [President Zine El Abidine BEN ALI (official ruling party)]; Liberal Social Party or PSL [Mounir BEJI]; Movement of Socialist Democrats or MDS [Ismail BOULAHYA]; Popular Unity Party or PUP [Mohamed BOUCHIHA]; Progressive Democratic Party [Nejib CHEBBI]; Unionist Democratic Union or UDU [Ahmed INOUBLI]
Political pressure groups and leaders: the Islamic fundamentalist party, Al Nahda (Renaissance), is outlawed
International organization participation: ABEDA, ACCT, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AMU, AU, BSEC (observer), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, MONUC, NAM, OAPEC (suspended), OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, ONUB, OPCW, OSCE (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Nejib HACHANA

chancery: 1515 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20005

telephone: [1] (202) 862-1850

FAX: [1] (202) 862-1858
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador designate Robert F. GODEC

embassy: Zone Nord-Est des Berges du Lac Nord de Tunis 1053

mailing address: use embassy street address

telephone: [216] 71 107-000

FAX: [216] 71 107-090
Flag description: red with a white disk in the center bearing a red crescent nearly encircling a red five-pointed star; the crescent and star are traditional symbols of Islam
 Economical information 
Economy - overview: Tunisia has a diverse economy, with important agricultural, mining, energy, tourism, and manufacturing sectors. Governmental control of economic affairs while still heavy has gradually lessened over the past decade with increasing privatization, simplification of the tax structure, and a prudent approach to debt. Progressive social policies also have helped raise living conditions in Tunisia relative to the region. Real growth slowed to a 15-year low of 1.9% in 2002 because of agricultural drought and lackluster tourism. Better rains in 2003 through 2005, however, helped push GDP growth to about 5% for these years. Tourism also recovered after the end of combat operations in Iraq. Tunisia is gradually removing barriers to trade with the EU. Broader privatization, further liberalization of the investment code to increase foreign investment, improvements in government efficiency, and reduction of the trade deficit are among the challenges ahead.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $82.85 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $30.94 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 4.2% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $8,200 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 13.2%

industry: 31.8%

services: 55% (2005 est.)
Labor force: 3.41 million

note: shortage of skilled labor (2005 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 55%

industry: 23%

services: 22% (1995 est.)
Unemployment rate: 14.2% (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line: 7.4% (2005 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.3%

highest 10%: 31.8% (1995)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.1% (2005 est.)
Budget: revenues: $7.322 billion

expenditures: $8.304 billion; including capital expenditures of $1.6 billion (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products: olives, olive oil, grain, tomatoes, citrus fruit, sugar beets, dates, almonds; beef, dairy products
Industries: petroleum, mining (particularly phosphate and iron ore), tourism, textiles, footwear, agribusiness, beverages
Industrial production growth rate: 0.9% (2005 est.)
Electricity - production: 11.56 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 99.5%

hydro: 0.5%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2001)
Electricity - consumption: 10.76 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports: 10 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports: 5 million kWh (2003)
Oil - production: 76,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - consumption: 90,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports: NA bbl/day
Oil - imports: NA bbl/day
Natural gas - production: 2.15 billion cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 3.84 billion cu m (2003 est.)
Current account balance: $-359.2 million (2005 est.)
Exports: $10.3 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities: textiles, mechanical goods, phosphates and chemicals, agricultural products, hydrocarbons
Exports - partners: France 30.9%, Italy 21.1%, Germany 9.4%, Spain 5.5%, Libya 4.5% (2005)
Imports: $12.86 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities: textiles, machinery and equipment, hydrocarbons, chemicals, food
Imports - partners: France 25.5%, Italy 22.9%, Germany 9.5%, Spain 5.5% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $4.375 billion (2005 est.)
Debt - external: $16.09 billion (2005 est.)
Currency (code): Tunisian dinar (TND)
Currency code: TND
Exchange rates: Tunisian dinars per US dollar - 1.2974 (2005), 1.2455 (2004), 1.2885 (2003), 1.4217 (2002), 1.4387 (2001)
Fiscal year: calendar year
 Transportations information 
Airports: 30 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways: total: 14

over 3,047 m: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 6

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 16

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 7

under 914 m: 7 (2006)
Pipelines: gas 2,945 km; oil 1,227 km; refined products 351 km (2006)
Railways: total: 2,153 km

standard gauge: 471 km 1.435-m gauge

narrow gauge: 1,674 km 1.000-m gauge (65 km electrified)

dual gauge: 8 km 1.435 m and 1.000-m gauges (three rails) (2005)
Roadways: total: 18,997 km

paved: 12,424 km (including 142 km of expressways)

unpaved: 6,573 km (2001)
Merchant marine: total: 9 ships (1000 GRT or over) 146,759 GRT/115,118 DWT

by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 1, chemical tanker 3, passenger/cargo 4 (2006)
Ports and terminals: Bizerte, Gabes, La Goulette, Skhira
 Military information 
Military branches: Army, Navy, Republic of Tunisia Air Force (Al-Quwwat al-Jawwiya al-Jamahiriyah At´tunisia) (2006)
Military service age and obligation: 20 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation - 12 months; 18 years of age for voluntary military service (2004)
Manpower available for military service: males age 20-49: 2,441,741

females age 20-49: 2,406,362 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 20-49: 2,035,431

females age 20-49: 2,000,757 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually: males age 18-49: 108,817

females age 20-49: 103,087 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure: $356 million (FY99)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.5% (FY99)
 Information about transnational issues 
Disputes - international: none

5,723 citizens of Tunisia are already SPAMfighters - are you?