SPAMfighter information about
 

Tonga

The data on this page is obtained from The World Factbook.
 Communications information 
SPAMfighters: 16
Internet users: 3,000 (2004)
Internet hosts: 18,775 (2006)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2000)
Internet country code: .to
Telephones - main lines in use: 11,200 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 16,400 (2004)
Telephone system: general assessment: competition between Tonga Telecommunications Corporation (TCC) and Shoreline Communications Tonga (SCT) is accelerating expansion of telecommunications; SCT recently granted authority to develop high-speed digital service for telephone, Internet, and television

domestic: fully automatic switched network

international: country code - 676; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean) (2004)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 4, shortwave 1 (2004)
Radios: 61,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 3 (2004)
Televisions: 2,000 (1997)
 Geographical information 
Location: Oceania, archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean, about two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand
Geographic coordinates: 20 00 S, 175 00 W
Map references: Oceania
Area: total: 748 sq km

land: 718 sq km

water: 30 sq km
Area - comparative: four times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 419 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate: tropical; modified by trade winds; warm season (December to May), cool season (May to December)
Terrain: most islands have limestone base formed from uplifted coral formation; others have limestone overlying volcanic base
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: unnamed location on Kao Island 1,033 m
Natural resources: fish, fertile soil
Land use: arable land: 20%

permanent crops: 14.67%

other: 65.33% (2005)
Irrigated land: NA
Natural hazards: cyclones (October to April); earthquakes and volcanic activity on Fonuafo´ou
Environment - current issues: deforestation results as more and more land is being cleared for agriculture and settlement; some damage to coral reefs from starfish and indiscriminate coral and shell collectors; overhunting threatens native sea turtle populations
Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note: archipelago of 169 islands (36 inhabited)
 People information 
Population: 114,689 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 35.3% (male 20,679/female 19,843)

15-64 years: 60.5% (male 34,399/female 34,964)

65 years and over: 4.2% (male 2,059/female 2,745) (2006 est.)
Median age: total: 20.7 years

male: 20.1 years

female: 21.3 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.01% (2006 est.)
Birth rate: 25.37 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate: 5.28 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female

total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 12.3 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 13.63 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 10.91 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 69.82 years

male: 67.32 years

female: 72.45 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate: 3 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Nationality: noun: Tongan(s)

adjective: Tongan
Ethnic groups: Polynesian, Europeans
Religions: Christian (Free Wesleyan Church claims over 30,000 adherents)
Languages: Tongan, English
Literacy: definition: can read and write Tongan and/or English

total population: 98.9%

male: 98.8%

female: 99% (1999 est.)
 Governmental information 
Country name: conventional long form: Kingdom of Tonga

conventional short form: Tonga

local long form: Pule´anga Tonga

local short form: Tonga

former: Friendly Islands
Government type: constitutional monarchy
Capital: name: Nuku´alofa

geographic coordinates: 21 08 S, 175 12 W

time difference: UTC+13 (18 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 3 island groups; Ha´apai, Tongatapu, Vava´u
Independence: 4 June 1970 (from UK protectorate)
National holiday: Emancipation Day, 4 June (1970)
Constitution: 4 November 1875; revised 1 January 1967
Legal system: based on English law
Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: King George TUPOU V (since 11 September 2006)

head of government: Prime Minister Dr. Feleti SEVELE (since 11 February 2006); Deputy Prime Minister Dr. Viliami TANGI (since 16 May 2006)

cabinet: Cabinet currently consists of 14 members, 10 appointed by the monarch for life; 4 appointed from among the elected members of the Legislative Assembly, including 2 each from the nobles and peoples representatives serving three year terms

note: there is also a Privy Council that consists of the monarch, the cabinet, and two governors

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the monarch
Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly or Fale Alea (32 seats - 14 reserved for cabinet ministers sitting ex officio, 9 for nobles selected by the country´s 33 nobles, and 9 elected by popular vote; members serve three-year terms)

elections: last held 21 March 2005 (next to be held in 2008)

election results: Peoples Representatives: percent of vote - HRDMT 70%; seats - HRDMT 7, independents 2
Judicial branch: Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the monarch); Court of Appeal (Chief Justice and high court justices from overseas chosen and approved by Privy Council)
Political parties and leaders: People´s Democratic Party [Tesina FUKO]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Human Rights and Democracy Movement Tonga or HRDMT [Rev. Simote VEA, chairman]; Public Servant´s Association [Finau TUTONE]
International organization participation: ACP, AsDB, C, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ITU, OPCW, PIF, Sparteca, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Fekitamoeloa ´UTOIKAMANU

chancery: 250 East 51st Street, New York, NY 10022

telephone: [1] (917) 369-1025

FAX: [1] (917) 369-1024

consulate(s) general: San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Tonga; the ambassador to Fiji is accredited to Tonga
Flag description: red with a bold red cross on a white rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner
 Economical information 
Economy - overview: Tonga, a small, open, South Pacific island economy, has a narrow export base in agricultural goods. Squash, coconuts, bananas, and vanilla beans are the main crops, and agricultural exports make up two-thirds of total exports. The country must import a high proportion of its food, mainly from New Zealand. The country remains dependent on external aid and remittances from Tongan communities overseas to offset its trade deficit. Tourism is the second-largest source of hard currency earnings following remittances. The government is emphasizing the development of the private sector, especially the encouragement of investment, and is committing increased funds for health and education. Tonga has a reasonably sound basic infrastructure and well-developed social services. High unemployment among the young, a continuing upturn in inflation, pressures for democratic reform, and rising civil service expenditures are major issues facing the government.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $178.5 million (2004 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $244 million
GDP - real growth rate: 2.4% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $2,200 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 23%

industry: 27%

services: 50% (FY03/04 est.)
Labor force: 33,910 (2003)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 65%

industry and services: 35% (1997 est.)
Unemployment rate: 13% (FY03/04 est.)
Population below poverty line: 24% NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 11.1% (2005 est.)
Budget: revenues: $56.97 million

expenditures: $83.88 million; including capital expenditures of $1.9 million (FY99/00 est.)
Agriculture - products: squash, coconuts, copra, bananas, vanilla beans, cocoa, coffee, ginger, black pepper; fish
Industries: tourism, fishing
Industrial production growth rate: 1% (2003 est.)
Electricity - production: 34 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2001)
Electricity - consumption: 31.62 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2003)
Oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - consumption: 800 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports: NA bbl/day
Oil - imports: NA bbl/day
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2003 est.)
Current account balance: $-4.321 million
Exports: $34 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities: squash, fish, vanilla beans, root crops
Exports - partners: Japan 41.5%, US 33.1%, NZ 6.3% (2005)
Imports: $122 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, machinery and transport equipment, fuels, chemicals
Imports - partners: NZ 33.4%, Fiji 26.7%, Australia 10.5%, US 8.4% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $40.83 million
Debt - external: $80.7 million (2004)
Currency (code): pa´anga (TOP)
Currency code: TOP
Exchange rates: pa´anga per US dollar - 1.96 (2005), 1.9716 (2004), 2.142 (2003), 2.1952 (2002), 2.1236 (2001)
Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June
 Transportations information 
Airports: 6 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways: total: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 5

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 1 (2006)
Roadways: total: 680 km

paved: 184 km

unpaved: 496 km (1999)
Merchant marine: total: 16 ships (1000 GRT or over) 62,185 GRT/72,960 DWT

by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 10, liquefied gas 1, livestock carrier 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 1

foreign-owned: 4 (Australia 1, Norway 1, Switzerland 1, UK 1) (2006)
Ports and terminals: Nuku´alofa
 Military information 
Military branches: Tonga Defense Services: Land Force (Royal Guard), Naval Force (includes Royal Marines, Air Wing) (2006)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age (est.) (2004)
Manpower available for military service: males age 18-49: 25,420

females ag3 18-49: 24,827 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 18-49: 19,840

females age 18-49: 21,342 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually: males ag3 18-49: 1,586

females age 18-49: 1,538 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure: NA
Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA
 Information about transnational issues 
Disputes - international: none

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