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SPAMfighter information about
 

Ethiopia

The data on this page is obtained from The World Factbook.
 Communications information 
SPAMfighters: 126
Internet users: 113,000 (2005)
Internet hosts: 88 (2006)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2002)
Internet country code: .et
Telephones - main lines in use: 610,300 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 410,600 (2005)
Telephone system: general assessment: adequate for government use

domestic: open-wire; microwave radio relay; radio communication in the HF, VHF, and UHF frequencies; two domestic satellites provide the national trunk service

international: country code - 251; open-wire to Sudan and Djibouti; microwave radio relay to Kenya and Djibouti; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Pacific Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 8, FM 0, shortwave 1 (2001)
Radios: 15.2 million (2002)
Television broadcast stations: 1 plus 24 repeaters (2002)
Televisions: 682,000 (2002)
 Geographical information 
Location: Eastern Africa, west of Somalia
Geographic coordinates: 8 00 N, 38 00 E
Map references: Africa
Area: total: 1,127,127 sq km

land: 1,119,683 sq km

water: 7,444 sq km
Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundaries: total: 5,328 km

border countries: Djibouti 349 km, Eritrea 912 km, Kenya 861 km, Somalia 1,600 km, Sudan 1,606 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation
Terrain: high plateau with central mountain range divided by Great Rift Valley
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Denakil Depression -125 m

highest point: Ras Dejen 4,620 m
Natural resources: small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash, natural gas, hydropower
Land use: arable land: 10.01%

permanent crops: 0.65%

other: 89.34% (2005)
Irrigated land: 2,900 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: geologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to earthquakes, volcanic eruptions; frequent droughts
Environment - current issues: deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; water shortages in some areas from water-intensive farming and poor management
Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea
Geography - note: landlocked - entire coastline along the Red Sea was lost with the de jure independence of Eritrea on 24 May 1993; the Blue Nile, the chief headstream of the Nile by water volume, rises in T´ana Hayk (Lake Tana) in northwest Ethiopia; three major crops are believed to have originated in Ethiopia: coffee, grain sorghum, and castor bean
 People information 
Population: 74,777,981

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2006 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 43.7% (male 16,373,718/female 16,280,766)

15-64 years: 53.6% (male 19,999,482/female 20,077,014)

65 years and over: 2.7% (male 929,349/female 1,117,652) (2006 est.)
Median age: total: 17.8 years

male: 17.7 years

female: 17.9 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.31% (2006 est.)
Birth rate: 37.98 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate: 14.86 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population

note: repatriation of Ethiopian refugees residing in Sudan is expected to continue for several years; some Sudanese, Somali, and Eritrean refugees, who fled to Ethiopia from the fighting or famine in their own countries, continue to return to their homes (2006 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 93.62 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 103.43 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 83.51 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 49.03 years

male: 47.86 years

female: 50.24 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate: 5.22 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 4.4% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 1.5 million (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 120,000 (2003 est.)
Nationality: noun: Ethiopian(s)

adjective: Ethiopian
Ethnic groups: Oromo 40%, Amhara and Tigre 32%, Sidamo 9%, Shankella 6%, Somali 6%, Afar 4%, Gurage 2%, other 1%
Religions: Muslim 45%-50%, Ethiopian Orthodox 35%-40%, animist 12%, other 3%-8%
Languages: Amharic, Tigrinya, Oromigna, Guaragigna, Somali, Arabic, other local languages, English (major foreign language taught in schools)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 42.7%

male: 50.3%

female: 35.1% (2003 est.)
 Governmental information 
Country name: conventional long form: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

conventional short form: Ethiopia

local long form: Ityop´iya Federalawi Demokrasiyawi Ripeblik

local short form: Ityop´iya

former: Abyssinia, Italian East Africa

abbreviation: FDRE
Government type: federal republic
Capital: name: Addis Ababa

geographic coordinates: 9 02 N, 38 42 E

time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 9 ethnically-based states (kililoch, singular - kilil) and 2 self-governing administrations* (astedaderoch, singular - astedader); Adis Abeba* (Addis Ababa), Afar, Amara (Amhara), Binshangul Gumuz, Dire Dawa*, Gambela Hizboch (Gambela Peoples), Hareri Hizb (Harari People), Oromiya (Oromia), Sumale (Somali), Tigray, Ye Debub Biheroch Bihereseboch na Hizboch (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)
Independence: oldest independent country in Africa and one of the oldest in the world - at least 2,000 years
National holiday: National Day (defeat of MENGISTU regime), 28 May (1991)
Constitution: ratified December 1994, effective 22 August 1995
Legal system: currently transitional mix of national and regional courts
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President GIRMA Woldegiorgis (since 8 October 2001)

head of government: Prime Minister MELES Zenawi (since NA August 1995)

cabinet: Council of Ministers as provided for in the December 1994 constitution; ministers are selected by the prime minister and approved by the House of People´s Representatives

elections: president elected by the House of People´s Representatives for a six-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 8 October 2001 (next to be held October 2007); prime minister designated by the party in power following legislative elections

election results: GIRMA Woldegiorgis elected president; percent of vote by the House of People´s Representatives - 100%
Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the House of Federation or upper chamber (108 seats; members are chosen by state assemblies to serve five-year terms) and the House of People´s Representatives or lower chamber (547 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote from single-member districts to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 15 May 2005 (next to be held in 2010)

election results: percent of vote - NA%; seats by party - EPRDF 327, CUD 109, UEDF 52, SPDP 23, OFDM 11, BGPDUF 8, ANDP 8, independent 1, others 6, undeclared 2

note: irregularities at some polling stations necessitated the rescheduling of voting in certain constituencies
Judicial branch: Federal Supreme Court (the president and vice president of the Federal Supreme Court are recommended by the prime minister and appointed by the House of People´s Representatives; for other federal judges, the prime minister submits to the House of People´s Representatives for appointment candidates selected by the Federal Judicial Administrative Council)
Political parties and leaders: Afar National Democratic Party or ANDP; Benishangul Gumuz People´s Democratic Unity Front or BGPDUF [Mulualem BESSE]; Coalition for Unity and Democracy or CUD [HAILU Shawel]; Ethiopian People´s Revolutionary Democratic Front or EPRDF [MELES Zenawi] (an alliance of Amhara National Democratic Movement or ANDM, Oromo People´s Democratic Organization or OPDO, the South Ethiopean People´s Democratic Front or SEPDF, and TigrAyan Peoples´ Liberation Front or TPLF); Gurage Nationalities´ Democratic Movement or GNDM; Oromo Federalist Democratic Movement or OFDM [BULCHA Demeksa]; Somali People´s Democratic Party or SPDP; United Ethopian Democratic Forces or UEDF [BEYENE Petros]; dozens of small parties
Political pressure groups and leaders: Afar Revolutionary Democratic Union Front or ARDUF; Oromo Liberation Front or OLF [DAOUD Ibsa]; Oromo National Liberation Front or ONLF
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, COMESA, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, ONUB, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Samuel ASSEFA

chancery: 3506 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 364-1200

FAX: [1] (202) 587-0195

consulate(s) general: Los Angeles

consulate(s): New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d´Affaires Vicki HUDDLESTON

embassy: Entoto Street, Addis Ababa

mailing address: P. O. Box 1014, Addis Ababa

telephone: [251] (1) 517-4000

FAX: [251] (1) 517-4888
Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and red with a yellow pentagram and single yellow rays emanating from the angles between the points on a light blue disk centered on the three bands; Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa, and the three main colors of her flag were so often adopted by other African countries upon independence that they became known as the pan-African colors
 Economical information 
Economy - overview: Ethiopia´s poverty-stricken economy is based on agriculture, accounting for half of GDP, 60% of exports, and 80% of total employment. The agricultural sector suffers from frequent drought and poor cultivation practices. Coffee is critical to the Ethiopian economy with exports of some $156 million in 2002, but historically low prices have seen many farmers switching to qat to supplement income. The war with Eritrea in 1998-2000 and recurrent drought have buffeted the economy, in particular coffee production. In November 2001, Ethiopia qualified for debt relief from the Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative, and in December 2005 the International Monetary Fund voted to forgive Ethiopia´s debt to the body. Under Ethiopia´s land tenure system, the government owns all land and provides long-term leases to the tenants; the system continues to hamper growth in the industrial sector as entrepreneurs are unable to use land as collateral for loans. Drought struck again late in 2002, leading to a 2% decline in GDP in 2003. Normal weather patterns late in 2003 helped agricultural and GDP growth recover in 2004-05.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $64.73 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $8.819 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 8.9% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $900 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 47.5%

industry: 9.9%

services: 42.6% (2005 est.)
Labor force: 27.27 million
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 80%

industry: 8%

services: 12% (1985)
Unemployment rate: NA%
Population below poverty line: 50% (2004 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3%

highest 10%: 33.7% (1995)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 11.6% (2005 est.)
Budget: revenues: $2.338 billion

expenditures: $2.88 billion; including capital expenditures of $788 million (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products: cereals, pulses, coffee, oilseed, cotton, sugarcane, potatoes, qat, cut flowers; hides, cattle, sheep, goats; fish
Industries: food processing, beverages, textiles, leather, chemicals, metals processing, cement
Industrial production growth rate: 6.7% (2001 est.)
Electricity - production: 2.058 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 1.3%

hydro: 97.6%

nuclear: 0%

other: 1.2% (2001)
Electricity - consumption: 1.914 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2003)
Oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - consumption: 27,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports: NA bbl/day
Oil - imports: NA bbl/day
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2003 est.)
Current account balance: $-844 million (2005 est.)
Exports: $612 million f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities: coffee, qat, gold, leather products, live animals, oilseeds
Exports - partners: Saudi Arabia 6.9%, Djibouti 6.8%, Switzerland 6.4%, Italy 5.9%, US 5.5%, Netherlands 4.2% (2005)
Imports: $2.722 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities: food and live animals, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, machinery, motor vehicles, cereals, textiles
Imports - partners: Saudi Arabia 14.7%, China 12.6%, US 12.4%, **COUNTRY** 9.6%, India 6.7%, Italy 4.6% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $1.226 billion (2005 est.)
Debt - external: $5.101 billion (2005 est.)
Currency (code): birr (ETB)
Currency code: ETB
Exchange rates: birr per US dollar - 8.68 (2005), 8.6356 (2004), 8.5997 (2003), 8.5678 (2002), 8.4575 (2001)

note: since 24 October 2001 exchange rates are determined on a daily basis via interbank transactions regulated by the Central Bank
Fiscal year: 8 July - 7 July
 Transportations information 
Airports: 84 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways: total: 14

over 3,047 m: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 5

1,524 to 2,437 m: 5

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 70

over 3,047 m: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 3

1,524 to 2,437 m: 13

914 to 1,523 m: 28

under 914 m: 23 (2006)
Railways: total: 681 km (Ethiopian segment of the Addis Ababa-Djibouti railroad)

narrow gauge: 681 km 1.000-m gauge

note: railway under joint control of Djibouti and Ethiopia (2005)
Roadways: total: 33,856 km

paved: 4,367 km

unpaved: 29,489 km (2003)
Merchant marine: total: 8 ships (1000 GRT or over) 79,441 GRT/97,669 DWT

by type: cargo 6, roll on/roll off 2 (2006)
Ports and terminals: Ethiopia is landlocked and has used ports of Assab and Massawa in Eritrea and port of Djibouti
 Military information 
Military branches: Ethiopian National Defense Force (ENDF): Ground Forces, Ethiopian Air Force

note: Ethiopia is landlocked and has no navy; following the secession of Eritrea, Ethiopian naval facilities remained in Eritrean possession
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service (2001)
Manpower available for military service: males age 18-49: 14,568,277

females age 18-49: 14,482,885 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 18-49: 8,072,755

females age 18-49: 7,902,660 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually: males age 18-49: 803,777

females age 18-49: 801,789 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure: $295.9 million (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3.4% (2005 est.)
 Information about transnational issues 
Disputes - international: Eritrea and Ethiopia agreed to abide by the 2002 Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission´s (EEBC) delimitation decision, but mutual animosities, accusations, and armed posturing prevail, preventing demarcation despite international intervention; Ethiopia refuses to withdraw to the delimited boundary until technical errors made by the EEBC that ignored "human geography" are addressed, including the award of Badme, the focus of the 1998-2000 war; Eritrea insists that the EEBC decision be implemented immediately without modifications; Ethiopia has only an administrative line and no international border with the Oromo region of southern Somalia where it maintains alliances with local clans in opposition to the unrecognized Somali Interim Government in Mogadishu; "Somaliland" secessionists provide port facilities and trade ties to landlocked Ethiopia; efforts to demarcate the porous boundary with Sudan have been delayed by civil war
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 90,451 (Sudan) 16,470 (Somalia) 8,719 (Eritrea)

IDPs: 132,000 (border war with Eritrea from 1998-2000 and ethnic clashes in Gambela; most IDPs are in Tigray and Gambela Provinces) (2005)
Illicit drugs: transit hub for heroin originating in Southwest and Southeast Asia and destined for Europe and North America, as well as cocaine destined for markets in southern Africa; cultivates qat (khat) for local use and regional export, principally to Djibouti and Somalia (legal in all three countries); the lack of a well-developed financial system limits the country´s utility as a money-laundering center

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