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SPAMfighter information about
 

Sudan

The data on this page is obtained from The World Factbook.
 Communications information 
SPAMfighters: 340
Internet users: 2.8 million (2005)
Internet hosts: 16 (2006)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2002)
Internet country code: .sd
Telephones - main lines in use: 670,000 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 1.828 million (2005)
Telephone system: general assessment: large, well-equipped system by regional standards and being upgraded; cellular communications started in 1996 and have expanded substantially

domestic: consists of microwave radio relay, cable, radiotelephone communications, tropospheric scatter, and a domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations

international: country code - 249; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Arabsat (2000)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 12, FM 1, shortwave 1 (1998)
Radios: 7.55 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 3 (1997)
Televisions: 2.38 million (1997)
 Geographical information 
Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Egypt and Eritrea
Geographic coordinates: 15 00 N, 30 00 E
Map references: Africa
Area: total: 2,505,810 sq km

land: 2.376 million sq km

water: 129,810 sq km
Area - comparative: slightly more than one-quarter the size of the US
Land boundaries: total: 7,687 km

border countries: Central African Republic 1,165 km, Chad 1,360 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 628 km, Egypt 1,273 km, Eritrea 605 km, Ethiopia 1,606 km, Kenya 232 km, Libya 383 km, Uganda 435 km
Coastline: 853 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 18 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate: tropical in south; arid desert in north; rainy season varies by region (April to November)
Terrain: generally flat, featureless plain; mountains in far south, northeast and west; desert dominates the north
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Red Sea 0 m

highest point: Kinyeti 3,187 m
Natural resources: petroleum; small reserves of iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold, hydropower
Land use: arable land: 6.78%

permanent crops: 0.17%

other: 93.05% (2005)
Irrigated land: 18,630 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: dust storms and periodic persistent droughts
Environment - current issues: inadequate supplies of potable water; wildlife populations threatened by excessive hunting; soil erosion; desertification; periodic drought
Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note: largest country in Africa; dominated by the Nile and its tributaries
 People information 
Population: 41,236,378 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 42.7% (male 8,993,483/female 8,614,022)

15-64 years: 54.9% (male 11,327,679/female 11,297,798)

65 years and over: 2.4% (male 536,754/female 466,642) (2006 est.)
Median age: total: 18.3 years

male: 18.1 years

female: 18.5 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.55% (2006 est.)
Birth rate: 34.53 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate: 8.97 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.02 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.15 male(s)/female

total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 61.05 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 61.88 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 60.18 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 58.92 years

male: 57.69 years

female: 60.21 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate: 4.72 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 2.3% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 400,000 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 23,000 (2003 est.)
Nationality: noun: Sudanese (singular and plural)

adjective: Sudanese
Ethnic groups: black 52%, Arab 39%, Beja 6%, foreigners 2%, other 1%
Religions: Sunni Muslim 70% (in north), indigenous beliefs 25%, Christian 5% (mostly in south and Khartoum)
Languages: Arabic (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, diverse dialects of Nilotic, Nilo-Hamitic, Sudanic languages, English

note: program of "Arabization" in process
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 61.1%

male: 71.8%

female: 50.5% (2003 est.)
 Governmental information 
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of the Sudan

conventional short form: Sudan

local long form: Jumhuriyat as-Sudan

local short form: As-Sudan

former: Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
Government type: Government of National Unity (GNU) - the National Congress Party (NCP) and Sudan People´s Liberation Movement (SPLM) formed a power-sharing government under the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA); the NCP, which came to power by military coup in 1989, is the majority partner; the agreement stipulates national elections for the 2008 - 2009 timeframe.
Capital: name: Khartoum

geographic coordinates: 15 36 N, 32 32 E

time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 25 states (wilayat, singular - wilayah); A´ali an Nil (Upper Nile), Al Bahr al Ahmar (Red Sea), Al Buhayrat (Lakes), Al Jazirah (El Gezira), Al Khartum (Khartoum), Al Qadarif (Gedaref), Al Wahdah (Unity), An Nil al Abyad (White Nile), An Nil al Azraq (Blue Nile), Ash Shamaliyah (Northern), Bahr al Jabal (Bahr al Jabal), Gharb al Istiwa´iyah (Western Equatoria), Gharb Bahr al Ghazal (Western Bahr al Ghazal), Gharb Darfur (Western Darfur), Janub Darfur (Southern Darfur), Janub Kurdufan (Southern Kordofan), Junqali (Jonglei), Kassala (Kassala), Nahr an Nil (Nile), Shamal Bahr al Ghazal (Northern Bahr al Ghazal), Shamal Darfur (Northern Darfur), Shamal Kurdufan (Northern Kordofan), Sharq al Istiwa´iyah (Eastern Equatoria), Sinnar (Sinnar), Warab (Warab)
Independence: 1 January 1956 (from Egypt and UK)
National holiday: Independence Day, 1 January (1956)
Constitution: 12 April 1973; suspended following coup of 6 April 1985; interim constitution of 10 October 1985 suspended following coup of 30 June 1989; new constitution implemented on 30 June 1998 partially suspended 12 December 1999 by President BASHIR; under the CPA, Interim National Constitution ratified 5 July 2005; Constitution of Southern Sudan signed December 2005
Legal system: based on English common law and Shari´a law; as of 20 January 1991, the now defunct Revolutionary Command Council imposed Shari´a law in the northern states; Shari´a law applies to all residents of the northern states regardless of their religion; some separate religious courts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations; the southern legal system is still developing under the CPA following the civil war; Shari´a law will not apply to the southern states
Suffrage: 17 years of age; universal, but noncompulsory
Executive branch: chief of state: President Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October 1993); First Vice President Salva KIIR (since 4 August 2005), Vice President Ali Osman TAHA (since 20 September 2005); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October 1993); First Vice President Salva KIIR (since 4 August 2005), Vice President Ali Osman TAHA (since 20 September 2005); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president; note - the National Congress Party or NCP (formerly the National Islamic Front or NIF) dominates al-BASHIR´s cabinet

elections: election last held 13-23 December 2000; next to be held no later than July 2009 under terms of the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement

election results: Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR reelected president; percent of vote - Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR 86.5%, Ja´afar Muhammed NUMAYRI 9.6%, three other candidates received a combined vote of 3.9%; election widely viewed as rigged; all popular opposition parties boycotted elections because of a lack of guarantees for a free and fair election

note: al-BASHIR assumed power as chairman of Sudan´s Revolutionary Command Council for National Salvation (RCC) in June 1989 and served concurrently as chief of state, chairman of the RCC, prime minister, and minister of defense until mid-October 1993 when he was appointed president by the RCC; he was elected president by popular vote for the first time in March 1996
Legislative branch: bi-cameral body comprising the National Assembly and Council of States (replaced unicameral National Assembly of 360 seats); pending elections and National Election Law, the Presidency appointed 450 members to the National Assembly according to the provisions of the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement: 52% NCP; 28% SPLM; 14% other Northerners; 6% other Southerners; 2 representatives from every state constitute the Council of States; terms in each chamber are five years following the first elections

elections: last held 13-22 December 2000 (next to be held 2008-2009 timeframe)

election results: NCP 355, others 5; note - replaced by appointments under the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement
Judicial branch: Constitutional Court of nine justices; National Supreme Court; National Courts of Appeal; other national courts; National Judicial Service Commission will undertake overall management of the National Judiciary
Political parties and leaders: political parties in the Government of National Unity include: National Congress Party or NCP [Ibrahim Ahmed OMAR]; Sudan People´s Liberation Movement or SPLM [Salva Mayardit KIIR]; and elements of the National Democratic Alliance or NDA including factions of the Democratic Union Party [Muhammad Uthman al-MIRGHANI] and Umma Party [SADIQ Siddiq al-Mahdi]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Umma Party [Sadiq al-MAHDI]; Popular Congress Party or PCP [Hassan al-TURABI]
International organization participation: ABEDA, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, CAEU, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d´Affaires, Ad Interim Khidir HAROUN (since April 2001)

chancery: 2210 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 338-8565

FAX: [1] (202) 667-2406
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d´Affaires Cameron HUME

embassy: Sharia Ali Abdul Latif Avenue, Khartoum

mailing address: P. O. Box 699, Khartoum; APO AE 09829

telephone: [249] (183) 774701

FAX: [249] (183) 774137

note: US Consul in Cairo is providing backup service for Khartoum; consular services are being established in Juba (southern Sudan)
Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with a green isosceles triangle based on the hoist side
 Economical information 
Economy - overview: Sudan has turned around a struggling economy with sound economic policies and infrastructure investments, but it still faces formidable economic problems, starting from its low level of per capita output. From 1997 to date, Sudan has been implementing IMF macroeconomic reforms. In 1999, Sudan began exporting crude oil and in the last quarter of 1999 recorded its first trade surplus, which, along with monetary policy, has stabilized the exchange rate. Increased oil production, revived light industry, and expanded export processing zones helped sustain GDP growth at 8.6% in 2004. Agricultural production remains Sudan´s most important sector, employing 80% of the work force, contributing 39% of GDP, and accounting for most of GDP growth, but most farms remain rain-fed and susceptible to drought. Chronic instability - resulting from the long-standing civil war between the Muslim north and the Christian/pagan south, adverse weather, and weak world agricultural prices - ensure that much of the population will remain at or below the poverty line for years.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $85.89 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $22.75 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 8% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $2,100 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 38.7%

industry: 20.3%

services: 41% (2003 est.)
Labor force: 7.415 million (1996 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 80%

industry: 7%

services: 13% (1998 est.)
Unemployment rate: 18.7% (2002 est.)
Population below poverty line: 40% (2004 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9% (2005 est.)
Budget: revenues: $6.182 billion

expenditures: $5.753 billion; including capital expenditures of $304 million (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products: cotton, groundnuts (peanuts), sorghum, millet, wheat, gum arabic, sugarcane, cassava (tapioca), mangos, papaya, bananas, sweet potatoes, sesame; sheep, livestock
Industries: oil, cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar, soap distilling, shoes, petroleum refining, pharmaceuticals, armaments, automobile/light truck assembly
Industrial production growth rate: 8.5% (1999 est.)
Electricity - production: 3.165 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 52.1%

hydro: 47.9%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2001)
Electricity - consumption: 2.943 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2003)
Oil - production: 401,300 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - consumption: 70,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - exports: 275,000 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2004)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2003 est.)
Current account balance: $-3.013 billion (2005 est.)
Exports: $6.989 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities: oil and petroleum products; cotton, sesame, livestock, groundnuts, gum arabic, sugar
Exports - partners: China 71.1%, Japan 12%, Saudi Arabia 2.8% (2005)
Imports: $5.028 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, manufactured goods, refinery and transport equipment, medicines and chemicals, textiles, wheat
Imports - partners: China 20.7%, Saudi Arabia 9.4%, UAE 5.9%, Egypt 5.5%, Japan 5.1%, India 4.8% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $2.45 billion (2005 est.)
Debt - external: $27.34 billion (2005 est.)
Currency (code): Sudanese dinar (SDD)
Currency code: SDD
Exchange rates: Sudanese dinars per US dollar - 243.61 (2005), 257.91 (2004), 260.98 (2003), 263.31 (2002), 258.7 (2001)
Fiscal year: calendar year
 Transportations information 
Airports: 88 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways: total: 15

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 9

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 73

over 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 18

914 to 1,523 m: 37

under 914 m: 17 (2006)
Heliports: 1 (2006)
Pipelines: gas 156 km; oil 3,930 km; refined products 1,613 km (2006)
Railways: total: 5,978 km

narrow gauge: 4,578 km 1.067-m gauge; 1,400 km 0.600-m gauge for cotton plantations (2005)
Roadways: total: 11,900 km

paved: 4,320 km

unpaved: 7,580 km (1999)
Waterways: 4,068 km (1,723 km open year round on White and Blue Nile rivers) (2005)
Merchant marine: total: 2 ships (1000 GRT or over) 11,326 GRT/14,068 DWT

by type: cargo 1, livestock carrier 1

registered in other countries: 2 (Panama 1, Saudi Arabia 1) (2006)
Ports and terminals: Port Sudan
 Military information 
Military branches: Sudanese People´s Armed Forces (SPAF): Army, Navy, Air Force, Popular Defense Force
Military service age and obligation: 18-30 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation - three years (August 2004)
Manpower available for military service: males age 18-49: 8,291,695

females age 18-49: 8,135,683 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 18-49: 5,427,474

females age 18-49: 5,649,566 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually: males age 18-49: 442,915

females age 18-49: 426,320 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure: $587 million (2001 est.) (2004)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3% (1999) (2004)
 Information about transnational issues 
Disputes - international: the effects of Sudan´s almost constant ethnic and rebel militia fighting since the mid-twentieth century have penetrated all of its border states that provide shelter for fleeing refugees and cover to disparate domestic and foreign conflicting elements; since 2003, Janjawid armed militia and Sudanese military have driven about 200,000 Darfur region refugees into eastern Chad; large numbers of Sudanese refugees have also fled to Uganda, Ethiopia, Kenya, the Central African Republic, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo; southern Sudan provides shelter to Ugandans seeking periodic protection from soldiers of the Lord´s Resistance Army; Sudan accuses Eritrea of supporting Sudanese rebel groups; efforts to demarcate the porous boundary with Ethiopia have been delayed by civil and ethnic fighting in Sudan; Kenya´s administrative boundary extends into the southern Sudan, creating the "Ilemi Triangle"; Egypt and Sudan retain claims to administer triangular areas that extend north and south of the 1899 Treaty boundary along the 22nd Parallel, but have withdrawn their military presence; Egypt is economically developing the "Hala´ib Triangle" north of the Treaty Line; periodic violent skirmishes with Sudanese residents over water and grazing rights persist among related pastoral populations from the Central African Republic along the border
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 110,927 (Eritrea) 5,023 (Chad) 7,983 (Uganda) 14,812 (Ethiopia)

IDPs: 5,300,000 - 6,200,000 (internal conflict since 1980s; ongoing genocide) (2005)

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