SPAMfighter information about
 

Iran

The data on this page is obtained from The World Factbook.
 Communications information 
SPAMfighters: 1,254
Internet users: 7.5 million (2005)
Internet hosts: 5,242 (2006)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 100 (2002)
Internet country code: .ir
Telephones - main lines in use: 18.986 million (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 7.222 million (2005)
Telephone system: general assessment: inadequate, but currently being modernized and expanded with the goal of not only improving the efficiency and increasing the volume of the urban service but also bringing telephone service to several thousand villages, not presently connected

domestic: as a result of heavy investing in the telephone system since 1994, the number of long-distance channels in the microwave radio relay trunk has grown substantially; many villages have been brought into the net; the number of main lines in the urban systems has approximately doubled; thousands of mobile cellular subscribers are being served; moreover, the technical level of the system has been raised by the installation of thousands of digital switches

international: country code - 98; HF radio and microwave radio relay to Turkey, Azerbaijan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Syria, Kuwait, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan; submarine fiber-optic cable to UAE with access to Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG); Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line runs from Azerbaijan through the northern portion of Iran to Turkmenistan with expansion to Georgia and Azerbaijan; satellite earth stations - 9 Intelsat and 4 Inmarsat
Radio broadcast stations: AM 72, FM 5, shortwave 5 (1998)
Radios: 17 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 28 (plus 450 low-power repeaters) (1997)
Televisions: 4.61 million (1997)
 Geographical information 
Location: Middle East, bordering the Gulf of Oman, the Persian Gulf, and the Caspian Sea, between Iraq and Pakistan
Geographic coordinates: 32 00 N, 53 00 E
Map references: Middle East
Area: total: 1.648 million sq km

land: 1.636 million sq km

water: 12,000 sq km
Area - comparative: slightly larger than Alaska
Land boundaries: total: 5,440 km

border countries: Afghanistan 936 km, Armenia 35 km, Azerbaijan-proper 432 km, Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave 179 km, Iraq 1,458 km, Pakistan 909 km, Turkey 499 km, Turkmenistan 992 km
Coastline: 2,440 km; note - Iran also borders the Caspian Sea (740 km)
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: bilateral agreements or median lines in the Persian Gulf

continental shelf: natural prolongation
Climate: mostly arid or semiarid, subtropical along Caspian coast
Terrain: rugged, mountainous rim; high, central basin with deserts, mountains; small, discontinuous plains along both coasts
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m

highest point: Kuh-e Damavand 5,671 m
Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, iron ore, lead, manganese, zinc, sulfur
Land use: arable land: 9.78%

permanent crops: 1.29%

other: 88.93% (2005)
Irrigated land: 76,500 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: periodic droughts, floods; dust storms, sandstorms; earthquakes
Environment - current issues: air pollution, especially in urban areas, from vehicle emissions, refinery operations, and industrial effluents; deforestation; overgrazing; desertification; oil pollution in the Persian Gulf; wetland losses from drought; soil degradation (salination); inadequate supplies of potable water; water pollution from raw sewage and industrial waste; urbanization
Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation
Geography - note: strategic location on the Persian Gulf and Strait of Hormuz, which are vital maritime pathways for crude oil transport
 People information 
Population: 68,688,433 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 26.1% (male 9,204,785/female 8,731,429)

15-64 years: 69% (male 24,133,919/female 23,245,255)

65 years and over: 4.9% (male 1,653,827/female 1,719,218) (2006 est.)
Median age: total: 24.8 years

male: 24.6 years

female: 25 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.1% (2006 est.)
Birth rate: 17 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate: 5.55 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.48 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.96 male(s)/female

total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 40.3 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 40.49 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 40.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 70.26 years

male: 68.86 years

female: 71.74 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 31,000 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 800 (2003 est.)
Nationality: noun: Iranian(s)

adjective: Iranian
Ethnic groups: Persian 51%, Azeri 24%, Gilaki and Mazandarani 8%, Kurd 7%, Arab 3%, Lur 2%, Baloch 2%, Turkmen 2%, other 1%
Religions: Shi´a Muslim 89%, Sunni Muslim 9%, Zoroastrian, Jewish, Christian, and Baha´i 2%
Languages: Persian and Persian dialects 58%, Turkic and Turkic dialects 26%, Kurdish 9%, Luri 2%, Balochi 1%, Arabic 1%, Turkish 1%, other 2%
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 79.4%

male: 85.6%

female: 73% (2003 est.)
 Governmental information 
Country name: conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Iran

conventional short form: Iran

local long form: Jomhuri-ye Eslami-ye Iran

local short form: Iran

former: Persia
Government type: theocratic republic
Capital: name: Tehran

geographic coordinates: 35 40 N, 51 26 E

time difference: UTC+3.5 (8.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 30 provinces (ostanha, singular - ostan); Ardabil, Azarbayjan-e Gharbi, Azarbayjan-e Sharqi, Bushehr, Chahar Mahall va Bakhtiari, Esfahan, Fars, Gilan, Golestan, Hamadan, Hormozgan, Ilam, Kerman, Kermanshah, Khorasan-e Janubi, Khorasan-e Razavi, Khorasan-e Shemali, Khuzestan, Kohgiluyeh va Buyer Ahmad, Kordestan, Lorestan, Markazi, Mazandaran, Qazvin, Qom, Semnan, Sistan va Baluchestan, Tehran, Yazd, Zanjan
Independence: 1 April 1979 (Islamic Republic of Iran proclaimed)
National holiday: Republic Day, 1 April (1979)

note: additional holidays celebrated widely in Iran include Revolution Day, 11 February (1979); Noruz (New Year´s Day), 21 March; Constitutional Monarchy Day, 5 August (1925); and various Islamic observances that change in accordance with the lunar-based hejira calendar
Constitution: 2-3 December 1979; revised 1989 to expand powers of the presidency and eliminate the prime ministership
Legal system: the Constitution codifies Islamic principles of government
Suffrage: 15 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: Supreme Leader Ali Hoseini-KHAMENEI (since 4 June 1989)

head of government: President Mahmud AHMADI-NEJAD (since 3 August 2005); First Vice President Parviz DAVUDI (since 11 September 2005)

cabinet: Council of Ministers selected by the president with legislative approval; the Supreme Leader has some control over appointments to the more sensitive ministries

note: also considered part of the Executive branch of government are three oversight bodies: 1) Assembly of Experts, a popularly elected body of 86 religious scholars constitutionally charged with determining the succession of the Supreme Leader, reviewing his performance, and deposing him if deemed necessary; 2) Expediency Council or Council for the Discernment of Expediency is a policy advisory and implementation board consisting of permanent and temporary members representing all major government factions, some of whom are appointed by the Supreme Leader; the Council exerts supervisory authority over the executive, judicial, and legislative branches and resolves legislative issues on which the Majles and the Council of Guardians disagree; 3) Council of Guardians or Council of Guardians of the Constitution is a 12-member board of clerics and jurists serving six-year terms that determines whether proposed legislation is both constitutional and faithful to Islamic law; the Council also vets candidates for suitability and supervises national elections

elections: Supreme Leader appointed for life by the Assembly of Experts; president elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 17 June 2005 with a two-candidate runoff on 24 June 2005 (next to be held in 2009)

election results: Mahmud AHMADI-NEJAD elected president; percent of vote - Mahmud AHMADI-NEJAD 62%, Ali Akbar Hashemi RAFSANJANI 36%
Legislative branch: unicameral Islamic Consultative Assembly or Majles-e-Shura-ye-Eslami (290 seats - formerly 270 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 20 February 2004 with a runoff held 7 May 2004 (by-elections next to be held in December 2006; general election to be held in February 2008)

election results: percent of vote - NA; seats by party - conservatives/Islamists 190, reformers 50, independents 43, religious minorities 5, and 2 seats unaccounted for
Judicial branch: Supreme Court - above a special clerical court, a revolutionary court, and a special administrative court
Political parties and leaders: formal political parties are a relatively new phenomenon in Iran and most conservatives still prefer to work through political pressure groups rather than parties; a loose pro-reform coalition called the 2nd Khordad Front, which includes political parties as well as less formal pressure groups and organizations, achieved considerable success at elections to the sixth Majles in early 2000; groups in the coalition include: Islamic Iran Participation Front (IIPF), Executives of Construction Party (Kargozaran), Solidarity Party, Islamic Labor Party, Mardom Salari, Mojahedin of the Islamic Revolution Organization (MIRO), and Militant Clerics Society (Ruhaniyun); the coalition participated in the seventh Majles elections in early 2004; following his defeat in the 2005 presidential elections, former MCS Secretary General Mehdi KARRUBI formed the National Trust Party; a new apparently conservative group, the Builders of Islamic Iran, took a leading position in the new Majles after winning a majority of the seats in February 2004
Political pressure groups and leaders: political pressure groups conduct most of Iran´s political activities; groups that generally support the Islamic Republic include Ansar-e Hizballah, Muslim Students Following the Line of the Imam, Tehran Militant Clergy Association (Ruhaniyat), Islamic Coalition Party (Motalefeh), and Islamic Engineers Society; active pro-reform student groups include the Office of Strengthening Unity (OSU); opposition groups include Freedom Movement of Iran, the National Front, Marz-e Por Gohar, and various ethnic and Monarchist organizations; armed political groups that have been almost completely repressed by the government include Mujahidin-e Khalq Organization (MEK), People´s Fedayeen, Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan, and Komala
International organization participation: ABEDA, CP, ECO, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, SCO (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US: none; note - Iran has an Interests Section in the Pakistani Embassy; address: Iranian Interests Section, Pakistani Embassy, 2209 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007; telephone: [1] (202) 965-4990; FAX [1] (202) 965-1073
Diplomatic representation from the US: none; note - protecting power in Iran is Switzerland
Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red; the national emblem (a stylized representation of the word Allah in the shape of a tulip, a symbol of martyrdom) in red is centered in the white band; ALLAH AKBAR (God is Great) in white Arabic script is repeated 11 times along the bottom edge of the green band and 11 times along the top edge of the red band
 Economical information 
Economy - overview: Iran´s economy is marked by a bloated, inefficient state sector, over reliance on the oil sector, and statist policies that create major distortions throughout. Most economic activity is controlled by the state. Private sector activity is typically small-scale - workshops, farming, and services. President Mahmud AHMADI-NEJAD has continued to follow the market reform plans of former President RAFSANJANI, with limited progress. Relatively high oil prices in recent years have enabled Iran to amass some $40 billion in foreign exchange reserves, but have not eased economic hardships such as high unemployment and inflation. The proportion of the economy devoted to the development of weapons of mass destruction remains a contentious issue with leading Western nations.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $569.9 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $181.2 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 6.9% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $8,400 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 11.6%

industry: 42.4%

services: 46% (2005 est.)
Labor force: 23.68 million

note: shortage of skilled labor (2005 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 30%

industry: 25%

services: 45% (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate: 11.2% (2004 est.)
Population below poverty line: 40% (2002 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 13.5% (2005 est.)
Budget: revenues: $48.82 billion

expenditures: $60.4 billion; including capital expenditures of $7.6 billion (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products: wheat, rice, other grains, sugar beets, fruits, nuts, cotton; dairy products, wool; caviar
Industries: petroleum, petrochemicals, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food processing (particularly sugar refining and vegetable oil production), metal fabrication, armaments
Industrial production growth rate: 3% excluding oil (2005 est.)
Electricity - production: 142.3 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 97.1%

hydro: 2.9%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2001)
Electricity - consumption: 132.1 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports: 840 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports: 600 million kWh (2003)
Oil - production: 3.979 million bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - consumption: 1.425 million bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports: 2.5 million bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - imports: NA bbl/day
Natural gas - production: 79 billion cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 79 billion cu m (2003 est.)
Current account balance: $13.27 billion (2005 est.)
Exports: $55.42 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities: petroleum 80%, chemical and petrochemical products, fruits and nuts, carpets
Exports - partners: Japan 16.6%, China 11%, Italy 5.8%, South Korea 5.7%, South Africa 5.7%, Turkey 5.6%, Netherlands 4.5%, France 4.3% (2005)
Imports: $42.5 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities: industrial raw materials and intermediate goods, capital goods, foodstuffs and other consumer goods, technical services, military supplies
Imports - partners: Germany 13.8%, UAE 8.3%, China 8.3%, Italy 7%, France 6.2%, South Korea 5.4%, Russia 4.8% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $45.46 billion (2005 est.)
Debt - external: $19.06 billion (2005 est.)
Currency (code): Iranian rial (IRR)
Currency code: IRR
Exchange rates: rials per US dollar - 8,964 (2005), 8,614 (2004), 8,193.9 (2003), 6,907 (2002), 1,753.6 (2001)

note: Iran has been using a managed floating exchange rate regime since unifying multiple exchange rates in March 2002
Fiscal year: 21 March - 20 March
 Transportations information 
Airports: 321 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways: total: 129

over 3,047 m: 41

2,438 to 3,047 m: 26

1,524 to 2,437 m: 25

914 to 1,523 m: 31

under 914 m: 6 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 192

over 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 8

914 to 1,523 m: 140

under 914 m: 43 (2006)
Heliports: 15 (2006)
Pipelines: condensate 7 km; condensate/gas 397 km; gas 17,099 km; liquid petroleum gas 570 km; oil 8,521 km; refined products 7,808 km (2006)
Railways: total: 7,256 km

broad gauge: 94 km 1.676-m gauge

standard gauge: 7,162 km 1.435-m gauge (186 km electrified) (2005)
Roadways: total: 178,152 km

paved: 118,115 km (including 751 km of expressways)

unpaved: 60,037 km (2002)
Waterways: 850 km (850 km on Karun River; additional service on Lake Urmia) (2006)
Merchant marine: total: 141 ships (1000 GRT or over) 5,086,702 GRT/8,878,829 DWT

by type: bulk carrier 39, cargo 45, chemical tanker 4, container 12, liquefied gas 1, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 6, petroleum tanker 30, roll on/roll off 3

foreign-owned: 1 (UAE 1)

registered in other countries: 22 (Bolivia 1, Cyprus 2, Malta 14, Panama 4, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1) (2006)
Ports and terminals: Assaluyeh, Bushehr
 Military information 
Military branches: Islamic Republic of Iran Regular Forces (Artesh): Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force (Niruye Havayi Jomhuriye Islamiye Iran; includes air defense); Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (Sepah-e Pasdaran-e Enqelab-e Eslami, IRGC): Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force, Qods Force (special operations), and Basij Force (Popular Mobilization Army); Law Enforcement Forces (2006)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for compulsory military service; 16 years of age for volunteers; soldiers as young as 9 were recruited extensively during the Iran-Iraq War; conscript service obligation - 18 months (2004)
Manpower available for military service: males age 18-49: 18,319,545

females age 18-49: 17,541,037 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 18-49: 15,665,725

females age 18-49: 15,005,597 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually: males age 18-49: 862,056

females age 18-49: 808,044 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure: $4.3 billion (2003 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3.3% (2003 est.)
 Information about transnational issues 
Disputes - international: Iran protests Afghanistan´s limiting flow of dammed tributaries to the Helmand River in periods of drought; Iraq´s lack of a maritime boundary with Iran prompts jurisdiction disputes beyond the mouth of the Shatt al Arab in the Persian Gulf; Iran and UAE dispute Tunb Islands and Abu Musa Island, which are occupied by Iran; Iran stands alone among littoral states in insisting upon a division of the Caspian Sea into five equal sectors
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 952,802 (Afghanistan) 93,173 (Iraq) (2005)
Illicit drugs: despite substantial interdiction efforts, Iran remains a key transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin to Europe; domestic narcotics consumption remains a persistent problem and according to official Iranian statistics there are at least 2 million drug users in the country; lacks anti-money-laundering laws

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