SPAMfighter information about
 

Mozambique

The data on this page is obtained from The World Factbook.
 Communications information 
SPAMfighters: 357
Internet users: 138,000 (2005)
Internet hosts: 6,985 (2006)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 11 (2002)
Internet country code: .mz
Telephones - main lines in use: 69,700 (2004)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 1.22 million (2005)
Telephone system: general assessment: fair system but not available generally (extremely low density with less than 1 main line per 100 persons)

domestic: the system consists of open-wire lines and trunk connection by microwave radio relay and tropospheric scatter

international: country code - 258; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 13, FM 17, shortwave 11 (2001)
Radios: 730,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 1 (2001)
Televisions: 67,600 (2000)
 Geographical information 
Location: Southeastern Africa, bordering the Mozambique Channel, between South Africa and Tanzania
Geographic coordinates: 18 15 S, 35 00 E
Map references: Africa
Area: total: 801,590 sq km

land: 784,090 sq km

water: 17,500 sq km
Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of California
Land boundaries: total: 4,571 km

border countries: Malawi 1,569 km, South Africa 491 km, Swaziland 105 km, Tanzania 756 km, Zambia 419 km, Zimbabwe 1,231 km
Coastline: 2,470 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: tropical to subtropical
Terrain: mostly coastal lowlands, uplands in center, high plateaus in northwest, mountains in west
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point: Monte Binga 2,436 m
Natural resources: coal, titanium, natural gas, hydropower, tantalum, graphite
Land use: arable land: 5.43%

permanent crops: 0.29%

other: 94.28% (2005)
Irrigated land: 1,180 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: severe droughts; devastating cyclones and floods in central and southern provinces
Environment - current issues: a long civil war and recurrent drought in the hinterlands have resulted in increased migration of the population to urban and coastal areas with adverse environmental consequences; desertification; pollution of surface and coastal waters; elephant poaching for ivory is a problem
Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note: the Zambezi flows through the north-central and most fertile part of the country
 People information 
Population: 19,686,505

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected; the 1997 Mozambican census reported a population of 16,099,246 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 42.7% (male 4,229,802/female 4,177,235)

15-64 years: 54.5% (male 5,207,149/female 5,519,291)

65 years and over: 2.8% (male 230,616/female 322,412) (2006 est.)
Median age: total: 18.3 years

male: 17.8 years

female: 18.8 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.38% (2006 est.)
Birth rate: 35.18 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate: 21.35 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 129.24 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 134.31 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 124.02 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 39.82 years

male: 39.53 years

female: 40.13 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate: 4.62 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 12.2% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 1.3 million (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 110,000 (2003 est.)
Nationality: noun: Mozambican(s)

adjective: Mozambican
Ethnic groups: African 99.66% (Makhuwa, Tsonga, Lomwe, Sena, and others), Europeans 0.06%, Euro-Africans 0.2%, Indians 0.08%
Religions: Catholic 23.8%, Muslim 17.8%, Zionist Christian 17.5%, other 17.8%, none 23.1% (1997 census)
Languages: Emakhuwa 26.1%, Xichangana 11.3%, Portuguese 8.8% (official; spoken by 27% of population as a second language), Elomwe 7.6%, Cisena 6.8%, Echuwabo 5.8%, other Mozambican languages 32%, other foreign languages 0.3%, unspecified 1.3% (1997 census)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 47.8%

male: 63.5%

female: 32.7% (2003 est.)
 Governmental information 
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Mozambique

conventional short form: Mozambique

local long form: Republica de Mocambique

local short form: Mocambique

former: Portuguese East Africa
Government type: republic
Capital: name: Maputo

geographic coordinates: 25 58 S, 32 35 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 10 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia), 1 city (cidade)*; Cabo Delgado, Gaza, Inhambane, Manica, Maputo, Cidade de Maputo*, Nampula, Niassa, Sofala, Tete, Zambezia
Independence: 25 June 1975 (from Portugal)
National holiday: Independence Day, 25 June (1975)
Constitution: 30 November 1990
Legal system: based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Armando GUEBUZA (since 2 February 2005)

head of government: Prime Minister Luisa DIOGO (since 17 February 2004)

cabinet: Cabinet

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 1-2 December 2004 (next to be held December 2009); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Armando GUEBUZA elected president; percent of vote - Armando GUEBUZA 63.7%, Afonso DHLAKAMA 31.7%
Legislative branch: unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (250 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote on a secret ballot to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 1-2 December 2004 (next to be held December 2009)

election results: percent of vote by party - FRELIMO 62%, RENAMO 29.7%; seats by party - FRELIMO 160, RENAMO 90
Judicial branch: Supreme Court (the court of final appeal; some of its professional judges are appointed by the president and some are elected by the Assembly); other courts include an Administrative Court, customs courts, maritime courts, courts marshal, labor courts

note: although the constitution provides for a separate Constitutional Court, one has never been established; in its absence the Supreme Court reviews constitutional cases
Political parties and leaders: Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (Frente de Liberatacao de Mocambique) or FRELIMO [Armando Emilio GUEBUZA, president]; Mozambique National Resistance-Electoral Union (Resistencia Nacional Mocambicana-Uniao Eleitoral) or RENAMO-UE [Afonso DHLAKAMA, president]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Institute for Peace and Democracy (Instituto para Paz e Democracia) or IPADE [Raul DOMINGOS, president]; Etica [Abdul CARIMO Issa, chairman]; Movement for Peace and Citizenship (Movimento para Paz e Cidadania); Mozambican League of Human Rights (Liga Mocambicana dos Direitos Humanos) or LDH [Alice MABOTE, president]; Human Rights and Development (Direitos Humanos e Desenvolvimento) or DHD [Artemisia FRANCO, secretary general]
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, C, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, MONUC, NAM, OIC, OIF (observer), OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIS, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Armando PANGUENE

chancery: 1990 M Street NW, Suite 570, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 293-7146

FAX: [1] (202) 835-0245
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Helen LA LIME

embassy: Avenida Kenneth Kuanda 193, Maputo

mailing address: P. O. Box 783, Maputo

telephone: [258] (1) 492797

FAX: [258] (1) 490448
Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), black, and yellow with a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; the black band is edged in white; centered in the triangle is a yellow five-pointed star bearing a crossed rifle and hoe in black superimposed on an open white book
 Economical information 
Economy - overview: At independence in 1975, Mozambique was one of the world´s poorest countries. Socialist mismanagement and a brutal civil war from 1977-92 exacerbated the situation. In 1987, the government embarked on a series of macroeconomic reforms designed to stabilize the economy. These steps, combined with donor assistance and with political stability since the multi-party elections in 1994, have led to dramatic improvements in the country´s growth rate. Inflation was reduced to single digits during the late 1990s although it returned to double digits in 2000-03. Fiscal reforms, including the introduction of a value-added tax and reform of the customs service, have improved the government´s revenue collection abilities. In spite of these gains, Mozambique remains dependent upon foreign assistance for much of its annual budget, and the majority of the population remains below the poverty line. Subsistence agriculture continues to employ the vast majority of the country´s work force. A substantial trade imbalance persists although the opening of the Mozal aluminum smelter, the country´s largest foreign investment project to date, has increased export earnings. In late 2005, and after years of negotiations, the government signed an agreement to gain Portugal´s majority share of the Cahora Bassa Hydroelectricity (HCB) company, a dam that was not transferred to Mozambique at independence because of the ensuing civil war and unpaid debts. More power is needed for additional investment projects in titanium extraction and processing and garment manufacturing that could further close the import/export gap. Mozambique´s once substantial foreign debt has been reduced through forgiveness and rescheduling under the IMF´s Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) and Enhanced HIPC initiatives, and is now at a manageable level.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $26.18 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $5.727 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 7.5% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $1,300 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 26.2%

industry: 34.8%

services: 39% (2005 est.)
Labor force: 9.2 million (2000 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 81%

industry: 6%

services: 13% (1997 est.)
Unemployment rate: 21% (1997 est.)
Population below poverty line: 70% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.5%

highest 10%: 31.7% (1997)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.5% (2005 est.)
Budget: revenues: $1.031 billion

expenditures: $1.93 billion (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products: cotton, cashew nuts, sugarcane, tea, cassava (tapioca), corn, coconuts, sisal, citrus and tropical fruits, potatoes, sunflowers; beef, poultry
Industries: food, beverages, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints), aluminum, petroleum products, textiles, cement, glass, asbestos, tobacco
Industrial production growth rate: 3.4% (2000)
Electricity - production: 15.14 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 2.9%

hydro: 97.1%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2001)
Electricity - consumption: 10.46 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports: 9.5 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports: 5.875 billion kWh (2003)
Oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - consumption: 11,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports: NA bbl/day
Oil - imports: NA bbl/day
Natural gas - production: 60 million cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 60 million cu m (2003 est.)
Current account balance: $-639 million (2005 est.)
Exports: $1.69 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities: aluminum, prawns, cashews, cotton, sugar, citrus, timber; bulk electricity
Exports - partners: Belgium 25.5%, South Africa 12.2%, Spain 11.6%, Italy 11.6%, Germany 7.7% (2005)
Imports: $2.041 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, vehicles, fuel, chemicals, metal products, foodstuffs, textiles
Imports - partners: South Africa 36.3%, Australia 12.8%, India 5.1% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $1.051 billion (2005 est.)
Debt - external: $5.456 billion (2005 est.)
Currency (code): metical (MZM)
Currency code: MZM
Exchange rates: meticais per US dollar - 23,061 (2005), 22,581 (2004), 23,782 (2003), 23,678 (2002), 20,704 (2001)
Fiscal year: calendar year
 Transportations information 
Airports: 158 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways: total: 22

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 3

1,524 to 2,437 m: 10

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 5 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 136

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 14

914 to 1,523 m: 34

under 914 m: 87 (2006)
Pipelines: gas 918 km; refined products 294 km (2006)
Railways: total: 3,123 km

narrow gauge: 2,983 km 1.067-m gauge; 140 km 0.762-m gauge (2005)
Roadways: total: 30,400 km

paved: 5,685 km

unpaved: 24,715 km (1999)
Waterways: 460 km (Zambezi River navigable to Tete and along Cahora Bassa Lake) (2002)
Merchant marine: total: 2 ships (1000 GRT or over) 2,964 GRT/5,324 DWT

by type: cargo 2

foreign-owned: 2 (Belgium 2) (2006)
Ports and terminals: Beira, Maputo, Nacala
 Military information 
Military branches: Mozambique Armed Defense Forces (FADM): Mozambique Army, Mozambique Navy (Marinha Mocambique, MM), Mozambique Air Force (Forca Aerea de Mocambique, FAM) (2006)
Manpower available for military service: males age 18-49: 3,793,373 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 18-49: 1,751,223 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually: males age 18-49: 185,314 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure: $78.03 million (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.3% (2005 est.)
 Information about transnational issues 
Disputes - international: none
Illicit drugs: Southern African transit point for South Asian hashish and heroin, and South American cocaine probably destined for the European and South African markets; producer of cannabis (for local consumption) and methaqualone (for export to South Africa); corruption and poor regulatory capability makes the banking system vulnerable to money laundering, but the lack of a well-developed financial infrastructure limits the country´s utility as a money-laundering center

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