SPAMfighter information about
 

Chad

The data on this page is obtained from The World Factbook.
 Communications information 
SPAMfighters: 25
Internet users: 35,000 (2005)
Internet hosts: 9 (2006)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2002)
Internet country code: .td
Telephones - main lines in use: 13,000 (2004)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 210,000 (2005)
Telephone system: general assessment: primitive system

domestic: fair system of radiotelephone communication stations

international: country code - 235; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 4, shortwave 5 (2002)
Radios: 1.67 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 1 (2002)
Televisions: 10,000 (1997)
 Geographical information 
Location: Central Africa, south of Libya
Geographic coordinates: 15 00 N, 19 00 E
Map references: Africa
Area: total: 1.284 million sq km

land: 1,259,200 sq km

water: 24,800 sq km
Area - comparative: slightly more than three times the size of California
Land boundaries: total: 5,968 km

border countries: Cameroon 1,094 km, Central African Republic 1,197 km, Libya 1,055 km, Niger 1,175 km, Nigeria 87 km, Sudan 1,360 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: tropical in south, desert in north
Terrain: broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in northwest, lowlands in south
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Djourab Depression 160 m

highest point: Emi Koussi 3,415 m
Natural resources: petroleum, uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad), gold, limestone, sand and gravel, salt
Land use: arable land: 2.8%

permanent crops: 0.02%

other: 97.18% (2005)
Irrigated land: 300 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north; periodic droughts; locust plagues
Environment - current issues: inadequate supplies of potable water; improper waste disposal in rural areas contributes to soil and water pollution; desertification
Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping
Geography - note: landlocked; Lake Chad is the most significant water body in the Sahel
 People information 
Population: 9,944,201 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 47.9% (male 2,396,393/female 2,369,261)

15-64 years: 49.3% (male 2,355,940/female 2,550,535)

65 years and over: 2.7% (male 107,665/female 164,407) (2006 est.)
Median age: total: 16 years

male: 15.3 years

female: 16.6 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.93% (2006 est.)
Birth rate: 45.73 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate: 16.38 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 91.45 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 100.12 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 82.43 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 47.52 years

male: 45.88 years

female: 49.21 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate: 6.25 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 4.8% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 200,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 18,000 (2003 est.)
Nationality: noun: Chadian(s)

adjective: Chadian
Ethnic groups: 200 distinct groups; in the north and center: Arabs, Gorane (Toubou, Daza, Kreda), Zaghawa, Kanembou, Ouaddai, Baguirmi, Hadjerai, Fulbe, Kotoko, Hausa, Boulala, and Maba, most of whom are Muslim; in the south: Sara (Ngambaye, Mbaye, Goulaye), Moundang, Moussei, Massa, most of whom are Christian or animist; about 1,000 French citizens live in Chad
Religions: Muslim 51%, Christian 35%, animist 7%, other 7%
Languages: French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south), more than 120 different languages and dialects
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write French or Arabic

total population: 47.5%

male: 56%

female: 39.3% (2003 est.)
 Governmental information 
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Chad

conventional short form: Chad

local long form: Republique du Tchad/Jumhuriyat Tshad

local short form: Tchad/Tshad
Government type: republic
Capital: name: N´Djamena

geographic coordinates: 12 07 N, 15 03 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 14 prefectures (prefectures, singular - prefecture); Batha, Biltine, Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti, Chari-Baguirmi, Guera, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mayo-Kebbi, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Tandjile

note: instead of 14 prefectures, there may be a new administrative structure of 28 departments (departments, singular - department) and 1 city*; Assongha, Baguirmi, Bahr El Gazal, Bahr Koh, Batha Oriental, Batha Occidental, Biltine, Borkou, Dababa, Ennedi, Guera, Hadjer Lamis, Kabia, Kanem, Lac, Lac Iro, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mandoul, Mayo-Boneye, Mayo-Dallah, Monts de Lam, N´Djamena*, Ouaddai, Salamat, Sila, Tandjile Oriental, Tandjile Occidental, Tibesti
Independence: 11 August 1960 (from France)
National holiday: Independence Day, 11 August (1960)
Constitution: passed by referendum 31 March 1996; a June 2005 referendum removed constitutional term limits
Legal system: based on French civil law system and Chadian customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno (since 4 December 1990)

head of government: Prime Minister Pascal YOADIMNADJI (since 3 February 2005)

cabinet: Council of State, members appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections: president elected by popular vote to serve five-year term; if no candidate receives at least 50% of the total vote, the two candidates receiving the most votes must stand for a second round of voting; last held 3 May 2006 (next to be held by May 2011); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno reelected president; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY 64.7%, Delwa Kassire COUMAKOYE 15.1%, Albert Pahimi PADACKE 7.8%, Mahamat ABDOULAYE 7.1%, Brahim KOULAMALLAH 5.3%; note - a June 2005 national referendum altered the constitution removing presidential term limits and permitting Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno to run for reelection
Legislative branch: bicameral according to constitution, consists of a National Assembly (155 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and a Senate (not yet created and size unspecified, members to serve six-year terms, one-third of membership renewable every two years)

elections: National Assembly - last held 21 April 2002 (next to be held by April 2007)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MPS 110, RDP 12, FAR 9, RNDP 5, URD 5, UNDR 3, other 11
Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; Criminal Courts; Magistrate Courts
Political parties and leaders: Federation Action for the Republic or FAR [Ngarledjy YORONGAR]; National Rally for Development and Progress or RNDP [Delwa Kassire COUMAKOYE]; National Union for Democracy and Renewal or UNDR [Saleh KEBZABO]; Party for Liberty and Development or PLD [Ibni Oumar Mahamat SALEH]; Patriotic Salvation Movement or MPS [Mahamat Saleh AHMAT, chairman]; Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Lol Mahamat CHOUA]; Union for Democracy and Republic or UDR [Jean ALINGUE]; Union for Renewal and Democracy or URD [Gen. Wadal Abdelkader KAMOUGUE]
Political pressure groups and leaders: NA
International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, CEMAC, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OIF, ONUB, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOCI, UPU, WCL, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Mahamat Adam BECHIR

chancery: 2002 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 462-4009

FAX: [1] (202) 265-1937
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Marc M. WALL

embassy: Avenue Felix Eboue, N´Djamena

mailing address: B. P. 413, N´Djamena

telephone: [235] 516-211

FAX: [235] 515-654
Flag description: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; similar to the flag of Romania; also similar to the flags of Andorra and Moldova, both of which have a national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; design was based on the flag of France
 Economical information 
Economy - overview: Chad´s primarily agricultural economy will continue to be boosted by major foreign direct investment projects in the oil sector that began in 2000. Over 80% of Chad´s population relies on subsistence farming and livestock raising for its livelihood. Chad´s economy has long been handicapped by its landlocked position, high energy costs, and a history of instability. Chad relies on foreign assistance and foreign capital for most public and private sector investment projects. A consortium led by two US companies has been investing $3.7 billion to develop oil reserves - estimated at 1 billion barrels - in southern Chad. The nation´s total oil reserves has been estimated to be 2 billion barrels. Oil production came on stream in late 2003. Chad began to export oil in 2004. Cotton, cattle, and gum arabic provide the bulk of Chad´s non-oil export earnings.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $13.98 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $4.799 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 6% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $1,400 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 33.5%

industry: 25.9%

services: 40.6% (2005 est.)
Labor force: 2.719 million
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 80% (subsistence farming, herding, and fishing)

industry and services: 20%
Unemployment rate: NA%
Population below poverty line: 80% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (2005 est.)
Budget: revenues: $765.2 million

expenditures: $653.3 million; including capital expenditures of $146 million (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products: cotton, sorghum, millet, peanuts, rice, potatoes, manioc (tapioca); cattle, sheep, goats, camels
Industries: oil, cotton textiles, meatpacking, beer brewing, natron (sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes, construction materials
Industrial production growth rate: 5% (1995)
Electricity - production: 120 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2001)
Electricity - consumption: 111.6 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2003)
Oil - production: 225,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - consumption: 1,450 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports: NA bbl/day
Oil - imports: NA bbl/day
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2003 est.)
Current account balance: $-602 million (2005 est.)
Exports: $3.016 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities: cotton, cattle, gum arabic, oil
Exports - partners: US 78.1%, China 9.9%, Taiwan 4.1% (2005)
Imports: $749.1 million f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and transportation equipment, industrial goods, foodstuffs, textiles
Imports - partners: France 21.1%, Cameroon 15.5%, US 12.1%, Belgium 6.8%, Portugal 4.6%, Saudi Arabia 4.3%, Netherlands 4.1% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $297 million (2005 est.)
Debt - external: $1.5 billion (2003 est.)
Currency (code): Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XAF); note - responsible authority is the Bank of the Central African States
Currency code: XAF
Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XAF) per US dollar - 527.47 (2005), 528.29 (2004), 581.2 (2003), 696.99 (2002), 733.04 (2001)
Fiscal year: calendar year
 Transportations information 
Airports: 52 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways: total: 7

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 3

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 45

1,524 to 2,437 m: 14

914 to 1,523 m: 21

under 914 m: 10 (2006)
Pipelines: oil 205 km (2006)
Roadways: total: 33,400 km

paved: 267 km

unpaved: 33,133 km (1999)
Waterways: Chari and Legone rivers are navigable only in wet season (2002)
 Military information 
Military branches: Chadian National Army (Armee Nationale Tchadienne, ANT), Air Force, Gendarmerie (2004)
Military service age and obligation: 20 years of age for conscripts, with three-year service obligation; 18 years of age for volunteers; no minimum age restriction for volunteers with consent from a guardian; women are subject to one year of compulsory military or civic service at age of 21 (2004)
Manpower available for military service: males age 20-49: 1,527,580

females age 20-49: 1,629,510 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 20-49: 794,988

females age 20-49: 849,500 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually: males age 18-49: 94,536

females age 20-49: 93,521 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure: $68.95 million (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1% (2005 est.)
 Information about transnational issues 
Disputes - international: since the expulsions of residents from Darfur in 2003 by Janjawid armed militia and Sudanese military, about 200,000 refugees remain in eastern Chad; Chad remains an important mediator in the Sudanese civil conflict, reducing tensions with Sudan arising from cross-border banditry; Chadian Aozou rebels reside in southern Libya; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission´s admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty, which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 224,924 (Sudan), 29,683 (Central African Republic) (2005)

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