SPAMfighter information about
 

Vietnam

The data on this page is obtained from The World Factbook.
 Communications information 
SPAMfighters: 17,639
Internet users: 13.1 million (2006)
Internet hosts: 12,114 (2006)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 5 (2000)
Internet country code: .vn
Telephones - main lines in use: 15.845 million (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 9.593 million (2005)
Telephone system: general assessment: Vietnam is putting considerable effort into modernization and expansion of its telecommunication system, but its performance continues to lag behind that of its more modern neighbors

domestic: all provincial exchanges are digitalized and connected to Hanoi, Da Nang, and Ho Chi Minh City by fiber-optic cable or microwave radio relay networks; main lines have been substantially increased, and the use of mobile telephones is growing rapidly

international: country code - 84; satellite earth stations - 2 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 65, FM 7, shortwave 29 (1999)
Radios: 8.2 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 6 (plus 61 provincial TV stations) (2006)
Televisions: 3.57 million (1997)
 Geographical information 
Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, Gulf of Tonkin, and South China Sea, alongside China, Laos, and Cambodia
Geographic coordinates: 16 00 N, 106 00 E
Map references: Southeast Asia
Area: total: 329,560 sq km

land: 325,360 sq km

water: 4,200 sq km
Area - comparative: slightly larger than New Mexico
Land boundaries: total: 4,639 km

border countries: Cambodia 1,228 km, China 1,281 km, Laos 2,130 km
Coastline: 3,444 km (excludes islands)
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climate: tropical in south; monsoonal in north with hot, rainy season (May to September) and warm, dry season (October to March)
Terrain: low, flat delta in south and north; central highlands; hilly, mountainous in far north and northwest
Elevation extremes: lowest point: South China Sea 0 m

highest point: Fan Si Pan 3,144 m
Natural resources: phosphates, coal, manganese, bauxite, chromate, offshore oil and gas deposits, forests, hydropower
Land use: arable land: 20.14%

permanent crops: 6.93%

other: 72.93% (2005)
Irrigated land: 30,000 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: occasional typhoons (May to January) with extensive flooding, especially in the Mekong River delta
Environment - current issues: logging and slash-and-burn agricultural practices contribute to deforestation and soil degradation; water pollution and overfishing threaten marine life populations; groundwater contamination limits potable water supply; growing urban industrialization and population migration are rapidly degrading environment in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City
Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note: extending 1,650 km north to south, the country is only 50 km across at its narrowest point
 People information 
Population: 84,402,966 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 27% (male 11,826,457/female 10,983,069)

15-64 years: 67.1% (male 28,055,941/female 28,614,553)

65 years and over: 5.8% (male 1,924,562/female 2,998,384) (2006 est.)
Median age: total: 25.9 years

male: 24.8 years

female: 27.1 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.02% (2006 est.)
Birth rate: 16.86 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate: 6.22 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 25.14 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 25.54 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 24.72 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 70.85 years

male: 68.05 years

female: 73.85 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.91 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.4% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 220,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 9,000 (2003 est.)
Nationality: noun: Vietnamese (singular and plural)

adjective: Vietnamese
Ethnic groups: Kinh (Viet) 86.2%, Tay 1.9%, Thai 1.7%, Muong 1.5%, Khome 1.4%, Hoa 1.1%, Nun 1.1%, Hmong 1%, others 4.1% (1999 census)
Religions: Buddhist 9.3%, Catholic 6.7%, Hoa Hao 1.5%, Cao Dai 1.1%, Protestant 0.5%, Muslim 0.1%, none 80.8% (1999 census)
Languages: Vietnamese (official), English (increasingly favored as a second language), some French, Chinese, and Khmer; mountain area languages (Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 90.3%

male: 93.9%

female: 86.9% (2002)
 Governmental information 
Country name: conventional long form: Socialist Republic of Vietnam

conventional short form: Vietnam

local long form: Cong Hoa Xa Hoi Chu Nghia Viet Nam

local short form: Viet Nam

abbreviation: SRV
Government type: Communist state
Capital: name: Hanoi

geographic coordinates: 21 02 N, 105 51 E

time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 59 provinces (tinh, singular and plural) and 5 municipalities (thanh pho, singular and plural)

provinces: An Giang, Bac Giang, Bac Kan, Bac Lieu, Bac Ninh, Ba Ria-Vung Tau, Ben Tre, Binh Dinh, Binh Duong, Binh Phuoc, Binh Thuan, Ca Mau, Cao Bang, Dac Lak, Dac Nong, Dien Bien, Dong Nai, Dong Thap, Gia Lai, Ha Giang, Ha Nam, Ha Tay, Ha Tinh, Hai Duong, Hau Giang, Hoa Binh, Hung Yen, Khanh Hoa, Kien Giang, Kon Tum, Lai Chau, Lam Dong, Lang Son, Lao Cai, Long An, Nam Dinh, Nghe An, Ninh Binh, Ninh Thuan, Phu Tho, Phu Yen, Quang Binh, Quang Nam, Quang Ngai, Quang Ninh, Quang Tri, Soc Trang, Son La, Tay Ninh, Thai Binh, Thai Nguyen, Thanh Hoa, Thua Thien-Hue, Tien Giang, Tra Vinh, Tuyen Quang, Vinh Long, Vinh Phuc, Yen Bai

municipalities: Can Tho, Da Nang, Hai Phong, Ha Noi, Ho Chi Minh
Independence: 2 September 1945 (from France)
National holiday: Independence Day, 2 September (1945)
Constitution: 15 April 1992
Legal system: based on communist legal theory and French civil law system
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Nguyen Minh TRIET (since 27 June 2006); Vice President Truong My HOA (since 25 July 2002)

head of government: Prime Minister Nguyen Tan DUNG (since 27 June 2006); Deputy Prime Minister Nguyen Sinh HUNG (since 28 June 2006), Deputy Prime Minister Pham Gia KHIEM (since 28 June 2006), and Deputy Prime Minister Truong Vinh TRONG (since 28 June 2006)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president based on proposal of prime minister and confirmed by National Assembly

elections: president elected by the National Assembly from among its members for five-year term; election last held 27 June 2006; prime minister appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly; deputy prime ministers appointed by the prime minister; appointment of prime minister and deputy prime ministers confirmed by National Assembly

election results: Nguyen Minh TRIET elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - 94%; Nguyen Tan DUNG elected prime minister; percent of National Assembly vote - 92%
Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Quoc-Hoi (498 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 19 May 2002 (next to be held 2007)

election results: percent of vote by party - CPV 90%, other 10% (the 10% are not CPV members but are approved by the CPV to stand for election); seats by party - CPV 447, CPV-approved 51
Judicial branch: Supreme People´s Court (chief justice is elected for a five-year term by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president)
Political parties and leaders: only party - Communist Party of Vietnam or CPV [Nong Duc MANH]
Political pressure groups and leaders: none
International organization participation: ACCT (observer), APEC, APT, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, CP, EAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Nguyen Tam CHIEN

chancery: 1233 20th Street NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 861-0737

FAX: [1] (202) 861-0917

consulate(s) general: San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Michael W. MARINE

embassy: 7 Lang Ha Street, Ba Dinh District, Hanoi

mailing address: PSC 461, Box 400, FPO AP 96521-0002

telephone: [84] (4) 772-1500

FAX: [84] (4) 772-1510

consulate(s) general: Ho Chi Minh City
Flag description: red with a large yellow five-pointed star in the center
 Economical information 
Economy - overview: Vietnam is a densely-populated, developing country that in the last 30 years has had to recover from the ravages of war, the loss of financial support from the old Soviet Bloc, and the rigidities of a centrally-planned economy. Substantial progress was achieved from 1986 to 1997 in moving forward from an extremely low level of development and significantly reducing poverty. Growth averaged around 9% per year from 1993 to 1997. The 1997 Asian financial crisis highlighted the problems in the Vietnamese economy and temporarily allowed opponents of reform to slow progress toward a market-oriented economy. GDP growth averaged 6.8% per year from 1997 to 2004 even against the background of the Asian financial crisis and a global recession, and growth hit 8% in 2005. Since 2001, however, Vietnamese authorities have reaffirmed their commitment to economic liberalization and international integration. They have moved to implement the structural reforms needed to modernize the economy and to produce more competitive, export-driven industries. Vietnam´s membership in the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) and entry into force of the US-Vietnam Bilateral Trade Agreement in December 2001 have led to even more rapid changes in Vietnam´s trade and economic regime. Vietnam´s exports to the US doubled in 2002 and again in 2003. Vietnam hopes to become a member of the WTO in 2006. Among other benefits, accession would allow Vietnam to take advantage of the phase out of the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing, which eliminated quotas on textiles and clothing for WTO partners on 1 January 2005. Agriculture´s share of economic output has continued to shrink, from about 25% in 2000 to 21% in 2005. Deep poverty, defined as a percent of the population living under $1 per day, has declined significantly and is now smaller than that of China, India, and the Philippines. Vietnam is working to promote job creation to keep up with the country´s high population growth rate. However, high levels of inflation have prompted Vietnamese authorities to tighten monetary and fiscal policies.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $235.2 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $43.75 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 8.5% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $2,800 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 20.9%

industry: 41%

services: 38.1% (2005 est.)
Labor force: 44.39 million (2005 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 56.8%

industry: 37%

services: 6.2% (July 2005)
Unemployment rate: 2.4% (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line: 19.5% (2004 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.6%

highest 10%: 29.9% (1998)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.3% (2005 est.)
Budget: revenues: $11.64 billion

expenditures: $12.95 billion; including capital expenditures of $1.8 billion (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products: paddy rice, coffee, rubber, cotton, tea, pepper, soybeans, cashews, sugar cane, peanuts, bananas; poultry; fish, seafood
Industries: food processing, garments, shoes, machine-building; mining, coal, steel; cement, chemical fertilizer, glass, tires, oil, paper
Industrial production growth rate: 17.2% (2005 est.)
Electricity - production: 46.2 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 43.7%

hydro: 56.3%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2001)
Electricity - consumption: 52 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - exports: NA kWh
Electricity - imports: NA kWh
Oil - production: 400,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - consumption: 216,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports: NA bbl/day
Oil - imports: NA bbl/day
Natural gas - production: 6.342 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 6.342 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Current account balance: $-309 million (2005 est.)
Exports: $32.23 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities: crude oil, marine products, rice, coffee, rubber, tea, garments, shoes
Exports - partners: US 21.2%, Japan 13.3%, Australia 8.4%, China 7.5%, Singapore 5.3%, Germany 5% (2005)
Imports: $36.88 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, petroleum products, fertilizer, steel products, raw cotton, grain, cement, motorcycles
Imports - partners: China 16.3%, Singapore 12.8%, Taiwan 11.7%, Japan 10.4%, South Korea 9.9%, Thailand 6.8% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $8.863 billion (2005 est.)
Debt - external: $20.16 billion (2005 est.)
Currency (code): dong (VND)
Currency code: VND
Exchange rates: dong per US dollar - 15,746 (2005), (2004), 15,510 (2003), 15,280 (2002), 14,725 (2001)
Fiscal year: calendar year
 Transportations information 
Airports: 32 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways: total: 26

over 3,047 m: 8

2,438 to 3,047 m: 5

1,524 to 2,437 m: 11

914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 6

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 2 (2006)
Pipelines: condensate/gas 432 km; gas 163 km; oil 50 km; refined products 206 km (2006)
Railways: total: 2,600 km

standard gauge: 178 km 1.435-m gauge

narrow gauge: 2,169 km 1.000-m gauge

dual gauge: 253 km three-rail track combining 1.435 m and 1.000-m gauges (2005)
Roadways: total: 222,179 km

paved: 42,167 km

unpaved: 180,012 km (2004)
Waterways: 17,702 km (5,000 km navigable by vessels up to 1.8 m draft) (2005)
Merchant marine: total: 267 ships (1000 GRT or over) 1,423,936 GRT/2,191,858 DWT

by type: bulk carrier 23, cargo 202, chemical tanker 4, container 5, liquefied gas 5, petroleum tanker 24, refrigerated cargo 2, roll on/roll off 1, specialized tanker 1

foreign-owned: 1 (Denmark 1)

registered in other countries: 17 (Antigua and Barbuda 1, Honduras 1, Mongolia 8, Panama 4, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, unknown 2) (2006)
Ports and terminals: Hai Phong, Ho Chi Minh City
 Military information 
Military branches: People´s Armed Forces: People´s Army of Vietnam (PAVN) (includes People´s Navy Command (with naval infantry, coast guard), Air and Air Defense Force (Kon Quan Nhan Dan), Border Defense Command), People´s Public Security Forces, Militia Force, Self-Defense Forces (2005)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age (male) for compulsory military service; females may volunteer for active duty military service; conscript service obligation - 2 years (3-4 years in the navy); 18-45 years of age (male) or 18-40 years of age (female) for Militia Force or Self Defense Forces (2006)
Manpower available for military service: males age 18-49: 21,341,813

females age 18-49: 21,430,808 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 18-49: 16,032,358

females age 18-49: 17,921,241 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually: males age 18-49: 915,572

females age 18-49: 864,161 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure: $650 million (FY98)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.5% (FY98)
 Information about transnational issues 
Disputes - international: southeast Asian states have enhanced border surveillance to check the spread of avian flu; Cambodia and Laos protest Vietnamese squatters and armed encroachments along border; after years of Cambodia claiming Vietnam had moved or destroyed boundary markers, in 2005, after much domestic debate, Cambodia ratified an agreement with Vietnam that settled all but a small portion of the land boundary; establishment of a maritime boundary with Cambodia is hampered by unresolved dispute over offshore islands; in 2004, Laotian-Vietnamese boundary commission agrees to erect missing markers in two adjoining provinces; demarcation of the China-Vietnam boundary proceeds slowly and although the maritime boundary delimitation and fisheries agreements were ratified in June 2004, implementation has been delayed; China occupies Paracel Islands also claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; involved in complex dispute with China, Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, and possibly Brunei over the Spratly Islands; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea" has eased tensions but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants; Vietnam continues to expand construction of facilities in the Spratly Islands; in March 2005, the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam signed a joint accord to conduct marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands
Illicit drugs: minor producer of opium poppy; probable minor transit point for Southeast Asian heroin; government continues to face domestic opium/heroin/methamphetamine addiction problems despite longstanding crackdowns

17,639 citizens of Vietnam are already SPAMfighters - are you?