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SPAMfighter information about
 

Mongolia

The data on this page is obtained from The World Factbook.
 Communications information 
SPAMfighters: 177
Internet users: 268,300 (2005)
Internet hosts: 272 (2006)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 5 (2001)
Internet country code: .mn
Telephones - main lines in use: 156,000 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 557,200 (2005)
Telephone system: general assessment: network is improving with international direct dialing available in many areas

domestic: very low density of about 5.5 main lines per 100 persons; two wireless providers cover all but two provinces

international: country code - 976; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean Region)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 62, shortwave 3 (2004)
Radios: 155,900 (1999)
Television broadcast stations: 52 (plus 21 provincial repeaters and many low power repeaters) (2004)
Televisions: 168,800 (1999)
 Geographical information 
Location: Northern Asia, between China and Russia
Geographic coordinates: 46 00 N, 105 00 E
Map references: Asia
Area: total: 1,564,116 sq km
Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Alaska
Land boundaries: total: 8,220 km

border countries: China 4,677 km, Russia 3,543 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)
Terrain: vast semidesert and desert plains, grassy steppe, mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in south-central
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Hoh Nuur 518 m

highest point: Nayramadlin Orgil (Huyten Orgil) 4,374 m
Natural resources: oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, fluorspar, gold, silver, iron
Land use: arable land: 0.76%

permanent crops: 0%

other: 99.24% (2005)
Irrigated land: 840 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: dust storms, grassland and forest fires, drought, and "zud," which is harsh winter conditions
Environment - current issues: limited natural fresh water resources in some areas; the policies of former Communist regimes promoted rapid urbanization and industrial growth that had negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal in power plants and the lack of enforcement of environmental laws severely polluted the air in Ulaanbaatar; deforestation, overgrazing, and the converting of virgin land to agricultural production increased soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification and mining activities had a deleterious effect on the environment
Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note: landlocked; strategic location between China and Russia
 People information 
Population: 2,832,224 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 27.9% (male 402,448/female 387,059)

15-64 years: 68.4% (male 967,546/female 969,389)

65 years and over: 3.7% (male 45,859/female 59,923) (2006 est.)
Median age: total: 24.6 years

male: 24.3 years

female: 25 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.46% (2006 est.)
Birth rate: 21.59 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate: 6.95 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 52.12 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 55.51 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 48.57 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 64.89 years

male: 62.64 years

female: 67.25 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.25 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.1% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: less than 500 (2003 est)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 200 (2003 est.)
Nationality: noun: Mongolian(s)

adjective: Mongolian
Ethnic groups: Mongol (mostly Khalkha) 94.9%, Turkic (mostly Kazakh) 5%, other (including Chinese and Russian) 0.1% (2000)
Religions: Buddhist Lamaist 50%, none 40%, Shamanist and Christian 6%, Muslim 4% (2004)
Languages: Khalkha Mongol 90%, Turkic, Russian (1999)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 97.8%

male: 98%

female: 97.5% (2002)
 Governmental information 
Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Mongolia

local long form: none

local short form: Mongol Uls

former: Outer Mongolia
Government type: mixed parliamentary/presidential
Capital: name: Ulaanbaatar

geographic coordinates: 47 55 N, 106 53 E

time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Saturday in March; ends last Saturday in September
Administrative divisions: 21 provinces (aymguud, singular - aymag) and 1 municipality* (singular - hot); Arhangay, Bayanhongor, Bayan-Olgiy, Bulgan, Darhan-Uul, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan, Govi-Altay, Govisumber, Hentiy, Hovd, Hovsgol, Omnogovi, Orhon, Ovorhangay, Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov, Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs
Independence: 11 July 1921 (from China)
National holiday: Independence Day/Revolution Day, 11 July (1921)
Constitution: 12 February 1992
Legal system: blend of Soviet, German, and US systems that combine "continental" or "civil" code and case-precedent; constitution ambiguous on judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR (since 24 June 2005)

head of government: Prime Minister Miegombyn ENKHBOLD (since 25 January 2006); Deputy Prime Minister Mendsaikhan ENKHSAIKHAN (since 28 January 2006)

cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the prime minister in consultation with the president and confirmed by the State Great Hural (parliament)

elections: presidential candidates nominated by political parties represented in State Great Hural and elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 22 May 2005 (next to be held in May 2009); following legislative elections, leader of majority party or majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by State Great Hural

election results: Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR elected president; percent of vote - Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR (MPRP) 53.44%, Mendsaikhanin ENKHSAIKHAN (DP) 20.05%, Bazarsadyn JARGALSAIKHAN (MRP) 13.92%, Badarchyn ERDENEBAT (M-MNSDP) 12.59%; Miegombyn ENKHBOLD elected prime minister by the State Great Hural 56 to 10
Legislative branch: unicameral State Great Hural 76 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms

elections: last held 27 June 2004 (next to be held in June 2008)

election results: percent of vote by party - MPRP 48.78%, MDC 44.8%, independents 3.5%, Republican Party 1.5%, others 1.42%; seats by party - MPRP 36, MDC 34, others 4; note - following June 2004 election MDC collapsed; as of 1 December 2005 composition of legislature was MPRP 38, DP 25, M-MNSDP 6, CWRP 2, MRP 1, PP 1, independents 3
Judicial branch: Supreme Court (serves as appeals court for people´s and provincial courts but rarely overturns verdicts of lower courts; judges are nominated by the General Council of Courts and approved by the president)
Political parties and leaders: Citizens´ Will Republican Party or CWRP (also called Civil Courage Republican Party or CCRP) [Sanjaasurengiin OYUN]; Democratic Party or DP [Tsakhiagiyn ELBEGDORJ]; Motherland-Mongolian New Socialist Democratic Party or M-MNSDP [Badarchyn ERDENEBAT]; Mongolian People´s Revolutionary Party or MPRP [Miegombyn ENKHBOLD]; Mongolian Republican Party or MRP [Bazarsadyn JARGALSAIKHAN]; People´s Party or PP [Lamjav GUNDALAI]

note: DP and M-MNSDP formed Motherland-Democracy Coalition (MDC) in 2003 and with CWRP contested June 2004 elections as single party; MDC´s leadership dissolved coalition in December 2004
Political pressure groups and leaders: NA
International organization participation: ARF, AsDB, CP, EBRD, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OPCW, OSCE (partner), SCO (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMIS, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ravdan BOLD

chancery: 2833 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007

telephone: [1] (202) 333-7117

FAX: [1] (202) 298-9227
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Mark C. MINTON

embassy: Big Ring Road, 11th Micro Region, Ulaanbaatar

mailing address: PSC 461, Box 300, FPO AP 96521-0002; P.O. Box 1021, Ulaanbaatar-13

telephone: [976] (11) 329095

FAX: [976] (11) 320776
Flag description: three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), blue, and red; centered on the hoist-side red band in yellow is the national emblem ("soyombo" - a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric representation for fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the yin-yang symbol)
 Economical information 
Economy - overview: Economic activity in Mongolia has traditionally been based on herding and agriculture. Mongolia has extensive mineral deposits. Copper, coal, molybdenum, tin, tungsten and gold account for a large part of industrial production. Soviet assistance, at its height one-third of GDP, disappeared almost overnight in 1990 and 1991 at the time of the dismantlement of the USSR. The following decade saw Mongolia endure both deep recession due to political inaction and natural disasters, as well as economic growth because of reform-embracing, free-market economics and extensive privatization of the formerly state-run economy. Severe winters and summer droughts in 2000-2002 resulted in massive livestock die-off and zero or negative GDP growth. This was compounded by falling prices for Mongolia´s primary sector exports and widespread opposition to privatization. Growth was 10.6% in 2004 and 5.5% in 2005, largely because of high copper prices and new gold production. Mongolia´s economy continues to be heavily influenced by its neighbors. For example, Mongolia purchases 80% of its petroleum products and a substantial amount of electric power from Russia, leaving it vulnerable to price increases. China is Mongolia´s chief export partner and a main source of the "shadow" or "grey" economy. The World Bank and other international financial institutions estimate the grey economy to be at least equal to that of the official economy, but the former´s actual size is difficult to calculate since the money does not pass through the hands of tax authorities or the banking sector. Remittances from Mongolians working abroad both legally and illegally are sizeable, and money laundering is a growing concern. Mongolia settled its $11 billion debt with Russia at the end of 2003 on favorable terms. Mongolia, which joined the World Trade Organization in 1997, seeks to expand its participation and integration into Asian regional economic and trade regimes.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $5.272 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $1.4 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 6.2% according to official estimate (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $1,900 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 20.6%

industry: 21.4%

services: 58% (2003 est.)
Labor force: 1.488 million (2003)
Labor force - by occupation: herding/agriculture 42%, mining 4%, manufacturing 6%, trade 14%, services 29%, public sector 5% (2003)
Unemployment rate: 6.7% (2003)
Population below poverty line: 36.1% (2004 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.1%

highest 10%: 37% (1995)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.5% (2005 est.)
Budget: revenues: $702 million

expenditures: $651 million; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, vegetables, forage crops; sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses
Industries: construction and construction materials; mining (coal, copper, molybdenum, fluorspar, tin, tungsten, and gold); oil; food and beverages; processing of animal products, cashmere and natural fiber manufacturing
Industrial production growth rate: 4.1% (2002 est.)
Electricity - production: 3.24 billion kWh (2005 est.)
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2001)
Electricity - consumption: 3.37 billion kWh (2005 est.)
Electricity - exports: 18 million kWh (2005 est.)
Electricity - imports: 130 million kWh (2005 est.)
Oil - production: 548.8 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - consumption: 11,220 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - exports: 515 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - imports: 11,210 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2003 est.)
Exports: $852 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities: copper, apparel, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar, other nonferrous metals
Exports - partners: China 56.2%, Canada 15.6%, US 14.7% (2005)
Imports: $1.011 billion c.i.f. (2004 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, fuel, cars, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, sugar, tea
Imports - partners: Russia 35.8%, China 25.7%, Japan 6.3%, South Korea 6%, Germany 4.2% (2005)
Debt - external: $1.36 billion (2004)
Currency (code): togrog/tugrik (MNT)
Currency code: MNT
Exchange rates: togrogs/tugriks per US dollar - 1,187.17 (2005), 1,185.3 (2004), 1,146.5 (2003), 1,110.3 (2002), 1,097.7 (2001)
Fiscal year: calendar year
 Transportations information 
Airports: 44 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways: total: 12

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 10

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 32

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 3

1,524 to 2,437 m: 24

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 1 (2006)
Heliports: 2 (2006)
Railways: total: 1,810 km

broad gauge: 1,810 km 1.524-m gauge (2005)
Roadways: total: 49,250 km

paved: 1,724 km

unpaved: 47,526 km (2002)
Waterways: 580 km

note: only waterway in operation is Lake Hovsgol (135 km); Selenge River (270 km) and Orhon River (175 km) are navigable but carry little traffic; lakes and rivers freeze in winter, are open from May to September (2004)
Merchant marine: total: 61 ships (1000 GRT or over) 319,053 GRT/479,190 DWT

by type: bulk carrier 8, cargo 49, passenger/cargo 1, roll on/roll off 3

foreign-owned: 49 (China 4, Japan 1, North Korea 3, Lebanon 1, Malaysia 1, Russia 13, Singapore 10, Syria 1, Thailand 1, UAE 5, Ukraine 1, Vietnam 8) (2006)
 Military information 
Military branches: Mongolian People´s Army (MPA), Mongolian People´s Air Force (MPAF); there is no navy (2005)
Military service age and obligation: 18-25 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation - 12 months in land or air defense forces or police; a small portion of Mongolian land forces (2.5 percent) is comprised of contract soldiers (2004)
Manpower available for military service: males age 18-49: 736,182

females age 18-49: 734,679 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 18-49: 570,435

females age 18-49: 607,918 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually: males age 18-49: 34,674

females age 18-49: 34,251 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure: $23.1 million (FY02)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.2% (FY02)
 Information about transnational issues 
Disputes - international: none

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