SPAMfighter information about
 

Madagascar

The data on this page is obtained from The World Factbook.
 Communications information 
SPAMfighters: 816
Internet users: 90,000 (2005)
Internet hosts: 1,504 (2006)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2000)
Internet country code: .mg
Telephones - main lines in use: 66,900 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 504,700 (2005)
Telephone system: general assessment: system is above average for the region

domestic: open-wire lines, coaxial cables, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter links connect regions

international: country code - 261; submarine cable to Bahrain; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 2 (plus a number of repeater stations), FM 9, shortwave 6 (2001)
Radios: 3.05 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 1 (plus 36 repeaters) (2001)
Televisions: 325,000 (1997)
 Geographical information 
Location: Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of Mozambique
Geographic coordinates: 20 00 S, 47 00 E
Map references: Africa
Area: total: 587,040 sq km

land: 581,540 sq km

water: 5,500 sq km
Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Arizona
Land boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 4,828 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or 100 nm from the 2,500-m deep isobath
Climate: tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in south
Terrain: narrow coastal plain, high plateau and mountains in center
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point: Maromokotro 2,876 m
Natural resources: graphite, chromite, coal, bauxite, salt, quartz, tar sands, semiprecious stones, mica, fish, hydropower
Land use: arable land: 5.03%

permanent crops: 1.02%

other: 93.95% (2005)
Irrigated land: 10,860 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: periodic cyclones, drought, and locust infestation
Environment - current issues: soil erosion results from deforestation and overgrazing; desertification; surface water contaminated with raw sewage and other organic wastes; several endangered species of flora and fauna unique to the island
Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note: world´s fourth-largest island; strategic location along Mozambique Channel
 People information 
Population: 18,595,469 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 44.8% (male 4,171,821/female 4,158,288)

15-64 years: 52.2% (male 4,809,173/female 4,900,675)

65 years and over: 3% (male 249,414/female 306,098) (2006 est.)
Median age: total: 17.5 years

male: 17.3 years

female: 17.7 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate: 3.03% (2006 est.)
Birth rate: 41.41 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate: 11.11 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female

total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 75.21 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 83.34 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 66.84 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 57.34 years

male: 54.93 years

female: 59.82 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate: 5.62 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 1.7% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 140,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 7,500 (2003 est.)
Nationality: noun: Malagasy (singular and plural)

adjective: Malagasy
Ethnic groups: Malayo-Indonesian (Merina and related Betsileo), Cotiers (mixed African, Malayo-Indonesian, and Arab ancestry - Betsimisaraka, Tsimihety, Antaisaka, Sakalava), French, Indian, Creole, Comoran
Religions: indigenous beliefs 52%, Christian 41%, Muslim 7%
Languages: French (official), Malagasy (official)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 68.9%

male: 75.5%

female: 62.5% (2003 est.)
 Governmental information 
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Madagascar

conventional short form: Madagascar

local long form: Republique de Madagascar/Repoblikan´i Madagasikara

local short form: Madagascar/Madagasikara

former: Malagasy Republic
Government type: republic
Capital: name: Antananarivo

geographic coordinates: 18 52 S, 47 30 E

time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 6 provinces (faritany); Antananarivo, Antsiranana, Fianarantsoa, Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara
Independence: 26 June 1960 (from France)
National holiday: Independence Day, 26 June (1960)
Constitution: 19 August 1992 by national referendum
Legal system: based on French civil law system and traditional Malagasy law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Marc RAVALOMANANA (since 6 May 2002)

head of government: Prime Minister Jacques SYLLA (27 May 2002)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 16 December 2001 (next to be held December 2006); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: percent of vote - Marc RAVALOMANANA (TIM) 50.5%, Didier RATSIRAKA (AREMA) 37.7%
Legislative branch: bicameral legislature consists of a National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (160 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and a Senate or Senat (100 seats; two-thirds of the seats filled by regional assemblies whose members will be elected by popular vote; the remaining one-third of the seats appointed by the president; all members will serve four-year terms)

elections: National Assembly - last held 15 December 2002 (next to be held December 2006)

election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - TIM 103, FP 22, AREMA 3, LEADER/Fanilo 2, RPSD 5, others 3, independents 22
Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; High Constitutional Court or Haute Cour Constitutionnelle
Political parties and leaders: Association for the Rebirth of Madagascar or AREMA [Pierrot RAJAONARIVO]; Economic Liberalism and Democratic Action for National Recovery or LEADER/Fanilo [Herizo RAZAFIMAHALEO]; Fihaonana Party or FP [Guy-Willy RAZANAMASY]; I Love Madagascar or TIM [Marc RAVALOMANANA]; Renewal of the Social Democratic Party or RPSD [Evariste MARSON]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Committee for the Defense of Truth and Justice or KMMR; Committee for National Reconciliation or CRN [Albert Zafy]; National Council of Christian Churches or FFKM
International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, InOC, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Rajaonarivony NARISOA

chancery: 2374 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 265-5525, 5526

FAX: [1] (202) 265-3034

consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador James D. MCGEE

embassy: 14-16 Rue Rainitovo, Antsahavola, Antananarivo 101

mailing address: B. P. 620, Antsahavola, Antananarivo

telephone: [261] (20) 22-212-57, 22-212-73, 22-209-56

FAX: [261] (20) 22-345-39
Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a vertical white band of the same width on hoist side
 Economical information 
Economy - overview: Having discarded past socialist economic policies, Madagascar has since the mid 1990s followed a World Bank- and IMF-led policy of privatization and liberalization. This strategy placed the country on a slow and steady growth path from an extremely low level. Agriculture, including fishing and forestry, is a mainstay of the economy, accounting for more than one-fourth of GDP and employing 80% of the population. Exports of apparel have boomed in recent years primarily due to duty-free access to the United States. Deforestation and erosion, aggravated by the use of firewood as the primary source of fuel, are serious concerns. President RAVALOMANANA has worked aggressively to revive the economy following the 2002 political crisis, which triggered a 12% drop in GDP that year. Poverty reduction and combating corruption will be the centerpieces of economic policy for the next few years.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $16.05 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $4.719 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 5.1% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $900 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 27.6%

industry: 16.5%

services: 55.9% (2005 est.)
Labor force: 7.3 million (2000)
Population below poverty line: 50% (2004 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3%

highest 10%: 29% (1999)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 15% (2005 est.)
Budget: revenues: $703.6 million

expenditures: $853 million; including capital expenditures of $331 million (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products: coffee, vanilla, sugarcane, cloves, cocoa, rice, cassava (tapioca), beans, bananas, peanuts; livestock products
Industries: meat processing, soap, breweries, tanneries, sugar, textiles, glassware, cement, automobile assembly plant, paper, petroleum, tourism
Industrial production growth rate: 3% (2000 est.)
Electricity - production: 825.4 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 36.1%

hydro: 63.9%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2001)
Electricity - consumption: 767.7 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2003)
Oil - production: 89.27 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - consumption: 15,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports: NA bbl/day
Oil - imports: NA bbl/day
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2003 est.)
Current account balance: $-438 million (2005 est.)
Exports: $951 million f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities: coffee, vanilla, shellfish, sugar, cotton cloth, chromite, petroleum products
Exports - partners: France 30.9%, US 30.3%, Germany 8.6% (2005)
Imports: $1.4 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities: capital goods, petroleum, consumer goods, food
Imports - partners: France 16.6%, China 10.6%, Iran 7.9%, Mauritius 6.5%, South Africa 5.9%, Hong Kong 5% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $572 million (2005 est.)
Debt - external: $4.6 billion (2002)
Currency (code): Madagascar ariary (MGA)
Currency code: MGF
Exchange rates: Malagasy ariary per US dollar - 2,003 (2005), 1,868.9 (2004), 1,238.3 (2003), 1,366.4 (2002), 1,317.7 (2001)
Fiscal year: calendar year
 Transportations information 
Airports: 116 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways: total: 29

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 20

under 914 m: 2 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 87

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 42

under 914 m: 43 (2006)
Railways: total: 854 km

narrow gauge: 854 km 1.000-m gauge (2005)
Roadways: total: 49,827 km

paved: 5,780 km

unpaved: 44,047 km (1999)
Waterways: 600 km (2005)
Merchant marine: total: 9 ships (1000 GRT or over) 13,896 GRT/18,466 DWT

by type: cargo 5, passenger 2, petroleum tanker 2 (2006)
Ports and terminals: Antsiranana, Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara
 Military information 
Military branches: People´s Armed Forces: Intervention Force, Development Force, and Aeronaval Force (navy and air); National Gendarmerie
Military service age and obligation: 18-50 years of age; conscript service obligation - 18 months (either military or equivalent civil service) (2004)
Manpower available for military service: males age 18-49: 3,542,797

females age 18-49: 3,551,447 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 18-49: 2,218,662

females age 18-49: 2,408,810 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually: males age 18-49: 187,000

females age 18-49: 184,833 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure: $329 million (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 7.2% (2005 est.)
 Information about transnational issues 
Disputes - international: claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, and Juan de Nova Island (all administered by France)
Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis (cultivated and wild varieties) used mostly for domestic consumption; transshipment point for heroin

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