SPAMfighter information about
 

Egypt

The data on this page is obtained from The World Factbook.
 Communications information 
SPAMfighters: 9,002
Internet users: 5 million (2005)
Internet hosts: 2,254 (2006)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 50 (2000)
Internet country code: .eg
Telephones - main lines in use: 10,396,100 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 14,045,134 (2005)
Telephone system: general assessment: large system; underwent extensive upgrading during 1990s and is reasonably modern; Internet access and cellular service are available

domestic: principal centers at Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah, Ismailia, Suez, and Tanta are connected by coaxial cable and microwave radio relay

international: country code - 20; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean), 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat; 5 coaxial submarine cables; tropospheric scatter to Sudan; microwave radio relay to Israel; a participant in Medarabtel
Radio broadcast stations: AM 42 (plus 15 repeaters), FM 14, shortwave 3 (1999)
Radios: 20.5 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 98 (September 1995)
Televisions: 7.7 million (1997)
 Geographical information 
Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula
Geographic coordinates: 27 00 N, 30 00 E
Map references: Africa
Area: total: 1,001,450 sq km

land: 995,450 sq km

water: 6,000 sq km
Area - comparative: slightly more than three times the size of New Mexico
Land boundaries: total: 2,665 km

border countries: Gaza Strip 11 km, Israel 266 km, Libya 1,115 km, Sudan 1,273 km
Coastline: 2,450 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate: desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters
Terrain: vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Qattara Depression -133 m

highest point: Mount Catherine 2,629 m
Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, zinc
Land use: arable land: 2.92%

permanent crops: 0.5%

other: 96.58% (2005)
Irrigated land: 34,220 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: periodic droughts; frequent earthquakes, flash floods, landslides; hot, driving windstorm called khamsin occurs in spring; dust storms, sandstorms
Environment - current issues: agricultural land being lost to urbanization and windblown sands; increasing soil salination below Aswan High Dam; desertification; oil pollution threatening coral reefs, beaches, and marine habitats; other water pollution from agricultural pesticides, raw sewage, and industrial effluents; very limited natural fresh water resources away from the Nile, which is the only perennial water source; rapid growth in population overstraining the Nile and natural resources
Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note: controls Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between Africa and remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal, a sea link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea; size, and juxtaposition to Israel, establish its major role in Middle Eastern geopolitics; dependence on upstream neighbors; dominance of Nile basin issues; prone to influxes of refugees
 People information 
Population: 78,887,007 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 32.6% (male 13,172,641/female 12,548,346)

15-64 years: 62.9% (male 25,102,754/female 24,519,698)

65 years and over: 4.5% (male 1,510,280/female 2,033,288) (2006 est.)
Median age: total: 24 years

male: 23.6 years

female: 24.3 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.75% (2006 est.)
Birth rate: 22.94 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate: 5.23 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female

total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 31.33 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 32.04 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 30.58 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 71.29 years

male: 68.77 years

female: 73.93 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.83 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 12,000 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 700 (2003 est.)
Nationality: noun: Egyptian(s)

adjective: Egyptian
Ethnic groups: Egyptian 98%, Berber, Nubian, Bedouin, and Beja 1%, Greek, Armenian, other European (primarily Italian and French) 1%
Religions: Muslim (mostly Sunni) 90%, Coptic 9%, other Christian 1%
Languages: Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 57.7%

male: 68.3%

female: 46.9% (2003 est.)
 Governmental information 
Country name: conventional long form: Arab Republic of Egypt

conventional short form: Egypt

local long form: Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah

local short form: Misr

former: United Arab Republic (with Syria)
Government type: republic
Capital: name: Cairo

geographic coordinates: 30 03 N, 31 15 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Friday in April; ends last Thursday in September
Administrative divisions: 26 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar, Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum, Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah, Al Isma´iliyah, Al Jizah, Al Minufiyah, Al Minya, Al Qahirah, Al Qalyubiyah, Al Wadi al Jadid, As Suways, Ash Sharqiyah, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf, Bur Sa´id, Dumyat, Janub Sina´, Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, Shamal Sina´, Suhaj
Independence: 28 February 1922 (from UK)
National holiday: Revolution Day, 23 July (1952)
Constitution: 11 September 1971; amended 22 May 1980 and 25 May 2005
Legal system: based on English common law, Islamic law, and Napoleonic codes; judicial review by Supreme Court and Council of State (oversees validity of administrative decisions); accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch: chief of state: President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK (since 14 October 1981)

head of government: Prime Minister Ahmed NAZIF (since 9 July 2004)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections: president elected by popular vote for six-year term (no term limits); note - a national referendum in May 2005 approved a constitutional amendment that changed the presidential election to a multicandidate popular vote; previously the president was nominated by the People´s Assembly and the nomination was validated by a national, popular referendum; last referendum held 26 September 1999; first election under terms of constitutional amendment held 7 September 2005; next election scheduled for 2011

election results: Hosni MUBARAK reelected president; percent of vote - Hosni MUBARAK 88.6%, Ayman NOUR 7.6%, Noman GOMAA 2.9%
Legislative branch: bicameral system consists of the People´s Assembly or Majlis al-Sha´b (454 seats; 444 elected by popular vote, 10 appointed by the president; members serve five-year terms) and the Advisory Council or Majlis al-Shura - which functions only in a consultative role (264 seats; 176 elected by popular vote, 88 appointed by the president; members serve six-year terms; mid-term elections for half of the elected members)

elections: People´s Assembly - three-phase voting - last held 7 and 20 November, 1 December 2005;(next to be held November-December 2010); Advisory Council - last held May-June 2004 (next to be held May-June 2007)

election results: People´s Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NDP 311, NWP 6, Tagammu 2, Tomorrow Party 1, independents 112 (12 seats to be determined by rerun elections, 10 seats appointed by President); Advisory Council - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA
Judicial branch: Supreme Constitutional Court
Political parties and leaders: National Democratic Party or NDP [Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK (governing party)]; National Progressive Unionist Grouping or Tagammu [Rifaat EL-SAID]; New Wafd Party or NWP [Mahmoud ABAZA]; Tomorrow Party [Naji AL-GHATRIFI]

note: formation of political parties must be approved by the government
Political pressure groups and leaders: despite a constitutional ban against religious-based parties, the technically illegal Muslim Brotherhood constitutes Hosni MUBARAK´s potentially most significant political opposition; MUBARAK tolerated limited political activity by the Brotherhood for his first two terms, but moved more aggressively since then to block its influence; civic society groups are sanctioned, but constrained in practical terms; trade unions and professional associations are officially sanctioned
International organization participation: ABEDA, ACCT, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, BSEC (observer), CAEU, COMESA, EBRD, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, ONUB, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOMIG, UNRWA, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Nabil FAHMY

chancery: 3521 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 895-5400

FAX: [1] (202) 244-4319

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Francis J. RICCIARDONE, Jr.

embassy: 8 Kamal El Din Salah St., Garden City, Cairo

mailing address: Unit 64900, Box 15, APO AE 09839-4900

telephone: [20] (2) 797-3300

FAX: [20] (2) 797-3200
Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; the national emblem (a gold Eagle of Saladin facing the hoist side with a shield superimposed on its chest above a scroll bearing the name of the country in Arabic) centered in the white band; design is based on the Arab Liberation flag and similar to the flag of Syria, which has two green stars, Iraq, which has three green stars (plus an Arabic inscription) in a horizontal line centered in the white band, and Yemen, which has a plain white band
 Economical information 
Economy - overview: Occupying the northeast corner of the African continent, Egypt is bisected by the highly fertile Nile valley, where most economic activity takes place. In the last 30 years, the government has reformed the highly centralized economy it inherited from President NASSER. In 2005, Prime Minister Ahmed NAZIF reduced personal and corporate tax rates, reduced energy subsidies, and privatized several enterprises. The stock market boomed, and GDP grew nearly 5%. Despite these achievements, the government has failed to raise living standards for the average Egyptian, and has had to continue providing subsidies for basic necessities. The subsidies have contributed to a growing budget deficit - more than 8% of GDP in 2005 - and represent a significant drain on the economy. Foreign direct investment remains low. To achieve higher GDP growth the NAZIF government will need to continue its aggressive pursuit of reform, especially in the energy sector. Egypt´s export sectors - particularly natural gas - have bright prospects.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $304.3 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $92.6 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 4.9% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $3,900 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 14.9%

industry: 35.7%

services: 49.3% (2005 est.)
Labor force: 21.34 million (2005 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 32%

industry: 17%

services: 51% (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate: 9.5% (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line: 20% (2005 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 4.4%

highest 10%: 25% (1995)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.9% (2005 est.)
Budget: revenues: $20.29 billion

expenditures: $27.68 billion; including capital expenditures of $2.7 billion (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products: cotton, rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruits, vegetables; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats
Industries: textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, hydrocarbons, construction, cement, metals, light manufactures
Industrial production growth rate: 5% (2005 est.)
Electricity - production: 84.26 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 81%

hydro: 19%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2001)
Electricity - consumption: 78.16 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports: 450 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports: 250 million kWh (2003)
Oil - production: 700,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - consumption: 566,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports: 134,000 bbl/day NA bbl/day
Oil - imports: NA bbl/day
Natural gas - production: 27 billion cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 27 billion cu m (2003 est.)
Current account balance: $2.207 billion (2005 est.)
Exports: $14.33 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities: crude oil and petroleum products, cotton, textiles, metal products, chemicals
Exports - partners: US 13.4%, Italy 9.4%, Spain 7.7%, Syria 5.7%, Germany 4.9%, France 4.9%, UK 4.1% (2005)
Imports: $24.1 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, wood products, fuels
Imports - partners: US 10.6%, Germany 7%, China 6.5%, France 6.3%, Italy 5.7%, Saudi Arabia 4.8% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $21.39 billion (2005 est.)
Debt - external: $35.26 billion (2005 est.)
Currency (code): Egyptian pound (EGP)
Currency code: EGP
Exchange rates: Egyptian pounds per US dollar - 5.78 (2005), 6.1962 (2004), 5.8509 (2003), 4.4997 (2002), 3.973 (2001)
Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June
 Transportations information 
Airports: 88 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways: total: 72

over 3,047 m: 13

2,438 to 3,047 m: 38

1,524 to 2,437 m: 16

under 914 m: 5 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 16

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 5

under 914 m: 7 (2006)
Heliports: 3 (2006)
Pipelines: condensate 464 km; condensate/gas 94 km; gas 6,021 km; liquid petroleum gas 897 km; oil 5,120 km; oil/gas/water 36 km; refined products 897 km (2006)
Railways: total: 5,063 km

standard gauge: 5,063 km 1.435-m gauge (62 km electrified) (2005)
Roadways: total: 64,000 km

paved: 49,984 km

unpaved: 14,016 km (1999)
Waterways: 3,500 km

note: includes Nile River, Lake Nasser, Alexandria-Cairo Waterway, and numerous smaller canals in delta; Suez Canal (193.5 km including approaches) navigable by oceangoing vessels drawing up to 17.68 m (2005)
Merchant marine: total: 76 ships (1000 GRT or over) 987,524 GRT/1,467,139 DWT

by type: bulk carrier 14, cargo 33, container 2, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 13, roll on/roll off 9

foreign-owned: 9 (Denmark 1, Greece 6, Lebanon 2)

registered in other countries: 49 (Bolivia 2, Cambodia 8, Georgia 8, Honduras 4, North Korea 2, Panama 16, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 3, Sao Tome and Principe 1, Saudi Arabia 2, Sierra Leone 1, Thailand 1, unknown 1) (2006)
Ports and terminals: Alexandria, Damietta, El Dekheila, Port Said, Suez, Zeit
 Military information 
Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Command
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for conscript military service; three-year service obligation (2001)
Manpower available for military service: males age 18-49: 18,347,560

females age 18-49: 17,683,904 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 18-49: 15,540,234

females age 18-49: 14,939,378 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually: males age 18-49: 802,920

females age 18-49: 764,176 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure: $2.44 billion (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3.4% (2004)
 Information about transnational issues 
Disputes - international: Egypt and Sudan retain claims to administer the two triangular areas that extend north and south of the 1899 Treaty boundary along the 22nd Parallel, but have withdrawn their military presence; Egypt is developing the Hala´ib Triangle north of the Treaty line; since the attack on Taba and other Egyptian resort towns on the Red Sea in October 2004, Egypt vigilantly monitors the Sinai and borders with Israel and the Gaza Strip; Egypt does not extend domestic asylum to some 70,000 persons who identify themselves as Palestinians but who largely lack UNRWA assistance and, until recently, UNHCR recognition as refugees
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 70,245 (Palestinian Territories) 14,904 (Sudan) (2005)
Illicit drugs: transit point for Southwest Asian and Southeast Asian heroin and opium moving to Europe, Africa, and the US; transit stop for Nigerian couriers; concern as money-laundering site due to lax enforcement of financial regulations

9,002 citizens of Egypt are already SPAMfighters - are you?