SPAMfighter information about
 

Lebanon

The data on this page is obtained from The World Factbook.
 Communications information 
SPAMfighters: 857
Internet users: 700,000 (2005)
Internet hosts: 3,307 (2006)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 22 (2000)
Internet country code: .lb
Telephones - main lines in use: 990,000 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 990,000 (2005)
Telephone system: general assessment: repair of the telecommunications system, severely damaged during the civil war, now complete

domestic: two commercial wireless networks provide good service; political instability hampers privatization and deployment of new technologies

international: country code - 961; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean) (erratic operations); coaxial cable to Syria; 3 submarine coaxial cables
Radio broadcast stations: AM 20, FM 22, shortwave 4 (1998)
Radios: 2.85 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 15 (plus 5 repeaters) (1995)
Televisions: 1.18 million (1997)
 Geographical information 
Location: Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Israel and Syria
Geographic coordinates: 33 50 N, 35 50 E
Map references: Middle East
Area: total: 10,400 sq km

land: 10,230 sq km

water: 170 sq km
Area - comparative: about 0.7 times the size of Connecticut
Land boundaries: total: 454 km

border countries: Israel 79 km, Syria 375 km
Coastline: 225 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
Climate: Mediterranean; mild to cool, wet winters with hot, dry summers; Lebanon mountains experience heavy winter snows
Terrain: narrow coastal plain; El Beqaa (Bekaa Valley) separates Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon Mountains
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m

highest point: Qurnat as Sawda´ 3,088 m
Natural resources: limestone, iron ore, salt, water-surplus state in a water-deficit region, arable land
Land use: arable land: 16.35%

permanent crops: 13.75%

other: 69.9% (2005)
Irrigated land: 1,040 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: dust storms, sandstorms
Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Beirut from vehicular traffic and the burning of industrial wastes; pollution of coastal waters from raw sewage and oil spills
Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Marine Life Conservation
Geography - note: Nahr el Litani is the only major river in Near East not crossing an international boundary; rugged terrain historically helped isolate, protect, and develop numerous factional groups based on religion, clan, and ethnicity
 People information 
Population: 3,874,050 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 26.5% (male 523,220/female 502,372)

15-64 years: 66.6% (male 1,235,915/female 1,342,540)

65 years and over: 7% (male 122,155/female 147,848) (2006 est.)
Median age: total: 27.8 years

male: 26.7 years

female: 28.9 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.23% (2006 est.)
Birth rate: 18.52 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate: 6.21 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female

total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 23.72 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 26.34 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 20.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 72.88 years

male: 70.41 years

female: 75.48 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.9 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 2,800 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 200 (2003 est.)
Nationality: noun: Lebanese (singular and plural)

adjective: Lebanese
Ethnic groups: Arab 95%, Armenian 4%, other 1%

note: many Christian Lebanese do not identify themselves as Arab but rather as descendents of the ancient Canaanites and prefer to be called Phoenicians
Religions: Muslim 59.7% (Shi´a, Sunni, Druze, Isma´ilite, Alawite or Nusayri), Christian 39% (Maronite Catholic, Greek Orthodox, Melkite Catholic, Armenian Orthodox, Syrian Catholic, Armenian Catholic, Syrian Orthodox, Roman Catholic, Chaldean, Assyrian, Copt, Protestant), other 1.3%

note: 17 religious sects recognized
Languages: Arabic (official), French, English, Armenian
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 87.4%

male: 93.1%

female: 82.2% (2003 est.)
 Governmental information 
Country name: conventional long form: Lebanese Republic

conventional short form: Lebanon

local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Lubnaniyah

local short form: Lubnan

former: Greater Lebanon
Government type: republic
Capital: name: Beirut

geographic coordinates: 33 53 N, 35 30 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions: 8 governorates (mohafazat, singular - mohafazah); Aakkar, Baalbek-Hermel, Beyrouth, Beqaa, Liban-Nord, Liban-Sud, Mont-Liban, Nabatiye
Independence: 22 November 1943 (from League of Nations mandate under French administration)
National holiday: Independence Day, 22 November (1943)
Constitution: 23 May 1926; amended a number of times, most recently Charter of Lebanese National Reconciliation (Ta´if Accord) of October 1989
Legal system: mixture of Ottoman law, canon law, Napoleonic code, and civil law; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 21 years of age; compulsory for all males; authorized for women at age 21 with elementary education
Executive branch: chief of state: President Emile LAHUD (since 24 November 1998)

head of government: Prime Minister Fuad SINIORA (since 30 June 2005); Deputy Prime Minister Elias MURR (since April 2005)

cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister in consultation with the president and members of the National Assembly

elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a six-year term (may not serve consecutive terms); election last held 15 October 1998 (next to be held in 2007 based on three-year extension); note - on 3 September 2004 the National Assembly voted 96 to 29 to extend Emile LAHUD´s six-year term by three years; the prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the president in consultation with the National Assembly; by agreement, the president is a Maronite Christian, the prime minister is a Sunni Muslim, and the speaker of the legislature is a Shi´a Muslim

election results: for 15 October 1998 election: Emile LAHUD elected president; National Assembly vote - 118 votes in favor, 0 against, 10 abstentions
Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Majlis Alnuwab (Arabic) or Assemblee Nationale (French) (128 seats; members elected by popular vote on the basis of sectarian proportional representation to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held in four rounds on 29 May, 5, 12, 19 June 2005 (next to be held 2009)

election results: percent of vote by group - NA; seats by group - Future Movement Bloc 36; Democratic Gathering 15; Development and Resistance Bloc 15; Loyalty to the Resistance 14; Free Patriotic Movement 14; Lebanese Forces 6; Qornet Shewan 5; Popular Bloc 4; Tripoli Independent Bloc 3; Syrian National Socialist Party 2; Kataeb Reform Movement 2; Tachnaq Party 2; Democratic Renewal Movement 1; Democratic Left 1; Nasserite Popular Movement 1; Ba´th Party 1; Kataeb Party 1; independent 5
Judicial branch: four Courts of Cassation (three courts for civil and commercial cases and one court for criminal cases); Constitutional Council (called for in Ta´if Accord - rules on constitutionality of laws); Supreme Council (hears charges against the president and prime minister as needed)
Political parties and leaders: Ba´th Party; Democratic Gathering [Walid JUMBLATT]; Democratic Left [Ilyas ATALLAH]; Democratic Renewal Movement [Nassib LAHUD]; Development and Resistance Bloc [Nabih BERRI, Amal Movement leader/Speaker of the National Assembly]; Free Patriotic Movement [Michel AWN]; Future Movement Bloc [Sa´ad HARIRI]; Kataeb Party [Karim PAKRADONI]; Kataeb Reform Movement [Amine GEMAYAL]; Lebanese Forces [Samir JA´JA]; Loyalty to the Resistance [Mohammad RA´AD]; Metn Bloc [Michel MURR]; Nasserite Popular Movement [Ussama SAAD]; National Bloc [Carlos EDDE]; Popular Bloc [Elias SKAFF]; Qornet Shewan Gathering [a grouping with no individual leader]; Syrian National Socialist Party [Ali QANSU]; Tachnaq Party; Tripoli Independent Bloc [a grouping with no individual leader]
Political pressure groups and leaders: none
International organization participation: ABEDA, ACCT, AFESD, AMF, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)

chancery: 2560 28th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 939-6320

FAX: [1] (202) 939-6324

consulate(s) general: Detroit, New York, Los Angeles
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Jeffrey D. FELTMAN

embassy: Awkar, Lebanon; (Akwar facing the Municipality)

mailing address: P. O. Box 70-840, Antelias, Lebanon; PSC 815, Box 2, FPO AE 09836-0002; from US: US Embassy Beirut, 6070 Beirut Place, Washington, DC 20521-6070

telephone: [961] (4) 542600, 543600

FAX: [961] (4) 544136
Flag description: three horizontal bands consisting of red (top), white (middle, double width), and red (bottom) with a green cedar tree centered in the white band
 Economical information 
Economy - overview: The 1975-91 civil war seriously damaged Lebanon´s economic infrastructure, cut national output by half, and all but ended Lebanon´s position as a Middle Eastern entrepot and banking hub. In the years since, Lebanon has rebuilt much of its war-torn physical and financial infrastructure by borrowing heavily - mostly from domestic banks. In an attempt to reduce the ballooning national debt, the Rafiq HARIRI government began an austerity program, reining in government expenditures, increasing revenue collection, and privatizing state enterprises. In November 2002, the government met with international donors at the Paris II conference to seek bilateral assistance in restructuring its massive domestic debt at lower interest rates. Substantial receipts from donor nations stabilized government finances in 2003, but did little to reduce the debt, which stands at nearly 170% of GDP. In 2004 the HARIRI government issued Eurobonds in an effort to manage maturing debt. The downturn in economic activity that followed the assassination of Rafiq al-HARIRI has eased, but has yet to be reversed. Tourism remains below the level of 2004. The new Prime Minister, Fuad SINIORA, has pledged to push ahead with economic reform, including privatization and more efficient government. The Core Group of nations has announced plans to hold a Donor´s Conference in early 2006 to assist the government of Lebanon in restructuring its debt and increasing foreign investment.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $22.78 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $20.7 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 0.1% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $6,000 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 12%

industry: 21%

services: 67% (2000)
Labor force: 2.6 million

note: in addition, there are as many as 1 million foreign workers (2001 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: NA%

industry: NA%

services: NA%
Unemployment rate: 18% (1997 est.)
Population below poverty line: 28% (1999 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.4% (2005 est.)
Budget: revenues: $4.953 billion

expenditures: $6.595 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products: citrus, grapes, tomatoes, apples, vegetables, potatoes, olives, tobacco; sheep, goats
Industries: banking, tourism, food processing, jewelry, cement, textiles, mineral and chemical products, wood and furniture products, oil refining, metal fabricating
Industrial production growth rate: NA%
Electricity - production: 10.67 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 97.2%

hydro: 2.8%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2001)
Electricity - consumption: 10.67 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports: 750 million kWh (2003)
Oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - consumption: 102,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports: NA bbl/day
Oil - imports: NA bbl/day
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2003 est.)
Current account balance: $-4.239 billion (2005 est.)
Exports: $1.782 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities: authentic jewelry, inorganic chemicals, miscellaneous consumer goods, fruit, tobacco, construction minerals, electric power machinery and switchgear, textile fibers, paper
Exports - partners: Syria 25.3%, UAE 11.4%, Switzerland 8.1%, Turkey 6%, Saudi Arabia 6% (2005)
Imports: $8.855 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities: petroleum products, cars, medicinal products, clothing, meat and live animals, consumer goods, paper, textile fabrics, tobacco
Imports - partners: Italy 11.1%, Syria 10.7%, France 9.2%, Germany 6.5%, China 5.4%, US 5.3%, UK 4.4%, Saudi Arabia 4.3% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $16.62 billion (2005 est.)
Debt - external: $26 billion (2005 est.)
Currency (code): Lebanese pound (LBP)
Currency code: LBP
Exchange rates: Lebanese pounds per US dollar - 1,507.5 (2005), 1,507.5 (2004), 1,507.5 (2003), 1,507.5 (2002), 1,507.5 (2001)
Fiscal year: calendar year
 Transportations information 
Airports: 7 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways: total: 5

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2006)
Pipelines: gas 43 km (2006)
Railways: total: 401 km

standard gauge: 319 km 1.435 m

narrow gauge: 82 km 1.050 m

note: rail system became unusable because of damage done during fighting in the 1980s and in 2006 (2006)
Roadways: total: 7,300 km

paved: 6,198 km

unpaved: 1,102 km (1999)
Merchant marine: total: 39 ships (1000 GRT or over) 150,598 GRT/178,295 DWT

by type: bulk carrier 4, cargo 18, livestock carrier 10, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 3, vehicle carrier 3

foreign-owned: 4 (Greece 3, Syria 1)

registered in other countries: 59 (Antigua and Barbuda 1, Barbados 1, Cambodia 6, Comoros 6, Egypt 2, Georgia 7, Honduras 1, North Korea 6, Liberia 2, Malta 10, Mongolia 1, Panama 2, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 4, Sao Tome and Principe 1, Syria 7, unknown 2) (2006)
Ports and terminals: Beirut, Chekka, Jounie, Tripoli
 Military information 
Military branches: Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF): Army, Navy, and Air Force
Military service age and obligation: 18-30 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; conscript service obligation - 12 months (2004)
Manpower available for military service: males age 18-49: 974,363

females age 18-49: 1,024,273 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 18-49: 821,762

females age 18-49: 865,770 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure: $540.6 million (2004)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3.1% (2004)
 Information about transnational issues 
Disputes - international: Lebanese Government claims Shab´a Farms area of Israeli-occupied Golan Heights; the roughly 2,000-strong UN Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) has been in place since 1978
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 404,170 (Palestinian Refugees (UNRWA))

IDPs: 300,000 (1975-90 civil war, Israeli invasions) (2005)
Illicit drugs: cannabis cultivation dramatically reduced to 2,500 hectares in 2002; opium poppy cultivation minimal; small amounts of Latin American cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin transit country on way to European markets and for Middle Eastern consumption

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